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Yep, it's definitely something like this. Here's an example of one that's more universal, since the audio + USB end isn't one piece with a fixed distance. The one you have is absolutely something proprietary that came with some specific device. Does it have a brand name on it or anything?
Seems like an insanely shitty version of one of these: [link]
Basically you could use this in your car if all you had was an Aux jack and not a USB port. USB goes into a 12V adapter to charge and the 3.5mm goes to the Aux.
Your specific cable makes it just about impossible to use, however.
It must have come with a very specific device it was supposed to work with, otherwise it makes no sense at all from a practicality standpoint.
Amazon has several different kinds:
these Arnt too bad
You can still do that with one plug. Get the 30 pin to lightning cable and this: [link]