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https://www.amazon.com/Shame-Sin-Christian-Transformation-Antiquity/dp/0674660013 Here is one source on the social transformations created by christianity.
As for nonChristian countries, Islam promotes charity, which is something good about it. But look at India or China. In India, charity for a long time was not regarded as good because the poor were seen as inheriting their karma. In China, there was great inequality until the commies came, and they brought their own issues. I would say much of communism is borrowed from christianity, but selectively, and without the different aspects of christianity that balance each other out it leads to bloodshed
except, people's definition of murder, adultery, rape is determined by societal norms. It was normal in preChristian Europe for infanticide to be common. Adultery was forbidden, but concubines and polygamy were not viewed as adultery. Forced marriage was accepted. The church banned these practices.
Charity was also not considered a social duty. The church massively expanded hospitals, schools, orphanages for the poor https://www.amazon.com/Shame-Sin-Christian-Transformation-Antiquity/dp/0674660013
All of human history shows that humans are not naturally good. We do not develop a sense of empathy or compassion without guidance from the family or society. And the family and society need a deeper source for their direction.
Even Nietsche argued that all "slave moralities"-where the strong serve the weak-were the fruits of Christianity's influence on the west
The secular philosopher Nietszche considered Christianity the mother of all "slave moralities" in the west, which are systems that he saw as chaining the powerful and strong into serving the sick and weak. He saw Christianity as the mother of socialism and liberalism. He had some reason too.
The Romans and Hellenes may have had some notion of noblisse oblige, but Christianity transformed our ideas about charity and hospitality, not only in the west but in the entire world. For example, very few hospitals and schools existed for all classes. The Christians massively expanded the construction of those and orphanages, and they served everyone. Also, doctors at the time ran away from areas of disease, but the Christians did not.
It's not only charity-sexual ethics were transformed. Concubines and incest were prohibited, as was infanticide. Christian marriage ceremonies emphasized that mutual consent was the basis of the marriage. Here are two books on these things:
As for murder, the number of innocent ppl who died in the crusades, for example, pales in comparison to those killed by commies like the derg or the shining path
It's not so much about being afraid of Hell as it is the presuppositions of secular moral thought in the west being informed by Christianity, such as the idea that humans have inherent dignity.
PreChristian Europe, and the rest of the world, was a far different place. For example, concubines were common, it was considered bad if women if engaged in adultery but encouraged for men to do so, polygamy was practiced, and infanticide was a common practice. This is a good book on the subject. https://www.amazon.com/Shame-Sin-Christian-Transformation-Antiquity/dp/0674660013
Thanks to the adoption of Christianity, infanticide and concubines were banned and discouraged, but hospitals and charity also were encouraged and funded, as were philosophy and art
Secular wetsern countries do take care of the poor, but that is the fruit of their Christian roots.
I would check out this book https://www.amazon.com/Shame-Sin-Christian-Transformation-Antiquity/dp/0674660013
https://www.amazon.com/Shame-Sin-Christian-Transformation-Antiquity/dp/0674660013 This book is good. I would also check out the works of Rodney Stark. Even Constantine banned gladiator fighting and built hospitals.
The idea of charity being an obligation for all people did not exist before Christianity. Pagans practiced infanticide on infants and temple prostitution. Charity was not considered a virtue. Jews valued charity, but gentiles were only held to the standard of the Noahide laws. Christianity as unique in sayingn charity towards all humans was the duty of every human being. Even today in India, charity is not considered a virtuous behavior. https://www.amazon.com/Shame-Sin-Christian-Transformation-Antiquity/dp/0674660013
Many of the morals we take for granted-sexual monogamy, infanticide being evil,, charity being good-were unique to Christiainity