Yeah in 2021 it's pretty straightforward. You can take Pop! OS, install it on your computer, and it will take care of installing the proper drivers for your GPU. You can find many videos on youtube that explain how to use Pop! OS for gaming.
And if you ever run into trouble, Pop! OS is just Ubuntu under the hood. Ubuntu is one of the most widespread Linux distributions out there, you will be able to find posts about people who had the same issue as you did 99% of the time. The rest of the time, if you post here, people will be able to help you.
Visual Studio Code is pretty straight-forward: https://code.visualstudio.com/docs/setup/linux
Also, it's cross platform, so what minimal learning/configurations/plugins you need will work on mac and windows, too.
there are different kinds of suspend
> Connect the hdd to another machine, change something on it (root password etc).
you really don't want to change anything on it
The kernel has support for a few different binary formats.
On most systems you will only encounter two of them: ELF executables and #! scripts.
There are a few slightly more esoteric formats. The a.out format predates ELF, and has only been deprecated very recently. There is also a FLAT format used by uClinux.
Of particular note, there is also a "misc" binary format handier, which allows new formats to be registered by userspace. You could use this to run Windows PE executables via Wine, for instance.
Are you using the supplied, rented Comcast Xfinity gateway?
If you are, there's your problem.
I used to do tech support for Comcast. Those things have so little memory onboard it's laughable, and their route tables max out super fast. You're lucky if you hit 10 devices before it all goes to hell.
Ther answer depends on how tech savvy you are when it comes to networking.
For most 'heavy users', but with little-to-no networking experience, Netgear Nighthawk line is decent. I won't say great, they've got a number of little bothersome problems to them, but they don't max out anywhere near as low, and are fully functional for most folks in such use cases.
If you're willing to invest a bit of money, and some time, a Ubiquiti setup is actually incredibly affordable, and simply will not max out till you start hitting the 100+ seats range.
Finally... there's pfSense. Sky's kinda the limit on that, and the default out-of-box is decent... but you're basically building a router from scratch. Great fun, but... yeah. :)
In all cases: Just get an off-the-shelf, garden variety DOCSIS 3.1 cable modem (I assume you're using cable Internet) and go.
Also something to think about: pair any of the aboth 3 with a Pi-hole, and watch all the advertising across all your smart devices just disappear. Lowering your overall bandwidth used per month by a good 20%. You cannot Pi-hole on the Xfinity Wireless Gateway; they won't let you change DNS servers.
3.4 is a LTS kernel version..the last update to up was only a few months ago according to kernel.org. So no, it's not a security risk...security patches are still backported to that kernel version. At the same time it's a highly tested version and known to be stable. Updating to anything newer would probably hurt stability a lot and be a major issue.
The 4.4 kernel series is another LTS kernel series by the way...but still far too new to be trust it for anything stable. In some years that series will probably be one you find in a lot devices.
You can use ProtonVPN, its pretty good even with the free tier, and has recently announced a GUI client for Linux as well. Also, as its made by the people behind ProtonMail, so it can be trusted as well as the same ProtonMail account can be used
At 7 months I think you are in the clear to install Puppy Linux.
I haven't seen any specific Linux distribution for a full grown dog, most likely because you can't teach an old dog new Linux, but as long as you install soon it should all be covered with apt-get dist-upgrade.
It may seem to be weird but... Google Pixel can be what you are looking for. You can install Graphene OS which is focused on security. You'll find list of supported devices at the bottom of the linked website. Additionally, you can watch The Hated One's newest video about Graphene OS.
Is seems to be very interesting project.
Depending on how you look at it this may be possible.
Run through Linux from scratch and you’ll be able to build your own in days not months. Once you grasp how this works you can customize it and call it yours.
Putting together a distro is not that hard. The hard part comes when you are talking about package management on what you’ve built, packaging software, upgrades, etc. That’s the reason most people use a well established distribution.
> alternative to microsoft office
Yep, there's Open Office and Libre Office. I believe one of these is installed by default on Ubuntu and most distributions.
> I can't pay for anything online.
I'm not familiar but is this because of trade restrictions with Iran?
> free VPNs for Linux
Free VPNs are funded by selling data about the user. In your case it is more than likely being bought by foreign governments. I would avoid them if possible. Maybe try Private Internet Access as a VPN provider? If that's not possible you could also try using Tails as an secondary operating system off a bootable USB drive.
The easiest way would be to follow a time-tested method like Linux From Scratch. But it is still quite hard, and most people who build a LFS do it for the learning experience and never actually use it in production.
> Oh god, ask any question about Kali and that lot come out of the woodwork "yOuR nOt sUpPoSeD tO iNStAlL iT, yOu'Re sUpPoSeD tO oNlY rUn iT lIvE".
And we're right. If you're asking basic questions you shouldn't be using Kali. The Kali developers say so themselves.
A quick google found this, though I have no actual experience with the process. https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/v4.19/process/submitting-patches.html
You could also dual boot. Takes up more space on the hard drive, but gives bare metal performance for each OS. Also has the benefit that if you are unable to find a replacement app right away for ones you use in Windows, you can still have relatively easy access.
I have switched to Linux exclusive approx 2 yrs ago, I used a few apps that were only available on Windows, but have found replacements, and do not regret the switch. The only issues that I have experienced have been non linux native multiplayer games and anticheat. If there is a native Linux version, it's all good.
Check out https://alternativeto.net/ to see if there are alternatives to whatever apps you use in Windows.
FreeIPA is the closest thing to a complete AD replacement that I am aware of. It provides not only the directory component, but all of the attendant policy and trust components. FreeIPA also provides good documentation for things like cross realm trusts with support for AD. It's possible to put all of the pieces together on your own, of course, but FreeIPA is a good place to start.
Open /etc/pulse/default.pa and find the line load-module module-role-corkchange it to #load-module module-role-cork This will stop apps from muting other apps
Then find load-module module-bluetooth-policyand change it to load-module module-bluetooth-policy auto_switch=0
load-module module-bluetooth-policy auto_switch=0
According to https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/PulseAudio/Documentation/User/Modules/#module-bluetooth-policy auto_switch=0 should disable switching between HFP and A2DP modes based on active streams.
Save the file, and reload pulseaudio - pulseaudio -k
As a side note, if you want to dual boot windows and linux, its better to have both OSes on separate disks as you won't have the issue of Windows overwriting the grub boot loader. That's how I'm doing it and haven't had any issues so far.
just to clarify.
there is a project called "Linux From Scratch".
often called 'LFS'
so your question/title could be confuseing if someone thinks you are asking how to start that specific 'tool/project'
you most likely are asking how to setup your own 'custom' setup.
Arch can do that, LFS can do that also.
> What exactly is Systemd?
According to https://systemd.io/, "systemd is a suite of basic building blocks for a Linux system."
> I know it is an init system but what that means?
One part of systemd is an init system. There are other parts as well. For historical reasons, the init system of systemd is also called systemd. An init system is the first process the kernel starts on boot. It is responsible for starting everything else (in the correct order) and for shutting everything down on shutdown.
> Also how many resources does it gets from my system (ram, cpu etc.)?
As many as it needs (as long as they are available). Just like any other process that isn't limited in some way.
> Also, do I need Systemd? Are there an alternatives or stuff like that?
You do need an init system. It doesn't have to be the one from systemd. But unless you really know what you are doing, you should use the one that is supported by your distro. (Most distros support only one init system.)
> I'm just thinking to learn about Systemd and see if that causes that high RAM usage!
IMHO that is pretty unlikely.
I'd recommend Nextcloud.
To start you could install it directly following their instructions, or you can jump straight to docker which you can get set up pretty easily by following the link to GitHub and using their example files.
The best is to disable password authentication and use a key-file (https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-configure-ssh-key-based-authentication-on-a-linux-server). If you don't want to then your new password must be at least 10 characters long and not subject to dictionary attacks.
Not a Linux distribution, but ReactOS might interest you:
> ReactOS® is a free open source operating system based on the best design principles found in the Windows NT® architecture (Windows versions such as Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows Server 2012 are built on Windows NT architecture). Written completely from scratch, ReactOS is not a Linux based system, and shares none of the UNIX architecture.
>The main goal of the ReactOS® project is to provide an operating system which is binary compatible with Windows. This will allow your Windows® applications and drivers to run as they would on your Windows system. Additionally, the look and feel of the Windows operating system is used, such that people accustomed to the familiar user interface of Windows® would find using ReactOS straightforward. The ultimate goal of ReactOS® is to allow you to use it as alternative to Windows® without the need to change software you are used to.
>ReactOS 0.3.16 is still in alpha stage, meaning it is not feature-complete and is recommended only for evaluation and testing purposes.
This is an exception. That's kali for sure. Compare:
Kali starts with all those apps you can see from the icons on the left and the wing tip of the dragon is visible.
It's a bit painful because I think only CentOS is supported, but there's Blackmagic Fusion: https://www.blackmagicdesign.com/products/fusion/
Other than that the closest thing would probably be using Blender, its in built NLE, and its compositing systems.
You should not even have access to your users' Private keys. They should run the ssh-keygen command, then copy their public keys to your server.
Also, Ed25519 is preferred to ECDSA. /u/Plausibleaurus must work for the NSA :P
If your users don't use Linux, they can generate keys with PuTTY. If they do, my preference is to generate a separate key for each server with ssh-keygen -f ~/.ssh/id_ed25519_servername -t ed25519, but that's by no means necessary. That gives you two files (~/.ssh/id_ed25519_servername and ~/.ssh/id_ed25519_servername.pub), with the .pub going on the server to their home folder (~/.ssh/authorized_keys).
ssh-keygen -f ~/.ssh/id_ed25519_servername -t ed25519
You'll be somewhat limited if your using something like Gnome etc, but if you went with something like i3 the sky is the limit. I'm guessing that's the porn your talking about? There are other options then i3, but that's the only window manager I've played with.
The hype is because System76 has invested in making sure the GNOME interface is as complete as possible. If someone is new to Linux and wants a comfortable Windows/macOS like experience and isn't ready for the scary terminal it does a good job.
Here is System76 page on the differences: https://pop.system76.com/docs/difference-between-pop-ubuntu/
It's not alone. ElemntaryOS, Mint, Solus, Manjaro are also very complete and beginner friendly. What most people recommend is to just try different distros until you find the one that fits you.
at that level performance, i would debate whether or not I would use the latest rasberry pi instead of that laptop.
512 RAM is bit too little to run a modern web browser. i would use something like puppy linux
software installation is not that great on that distro.
My laptop has an i5 processor, 8GB RAM and some kind of Intel VGA. I use my 40" TV as a monitor almost 100% of the time. I also have a proper mouse and keyboard like you would expect from the old school guy that I am.
I use MX Linux with /r/i3wm. The programs I use the most are:
I use this computer for everything that I do, like for example:
I also use a lot of reddit, of course. I don't use my computer for videogames and my PS4 is collecting dust.
Windows makes me impatient, but I would certainly dual-boot if I had the need. Luckily, that is not the case right now.
I have about 20 years of experience with Linux, but I'm not an IT person. I just like Linux a lot.
> I have id_rsa auth with a strong password, but if I use that my employer could just sniff the password and copy the key.
Setup a separate key you use to login from work, then setup two-factor authentication for logins using it. The second factor will keep your work from being able to use the key while you work there, and you can revoke the key when you leave that job.
Tl;DR just buy a hardware token and use that for 2FA.
On linux, you'll want to use a piece of software known as Lutris. It allows you to download pre-written install scripts for games, meaning that you can get games running in wine without needing to configure it yourself.
WOW runs flawlessly using it.
Yes. I did it on corsair.
Install the latest virtualbox.
Install the VB extension pack.
Open Virtualbox. Install your craptastic windows 10 OS.
Install the VB tools in the windows 10 OS. Devices/Insert Guest Additions CD Image.
Reboot the windows 10 OS.
Install your kraken program. On the bottom right bar you will see your usb link to your kraken. Right click to enable it.
Open your ghetto kraken program. Control your temp curves/update the hardware.
That's it. If you don't see the usb link for some reason, make sure your linux user is in the vboxusers group. Have fun.
>What is the difference between the Linux kernel, and the software LFS provides?
Pretty much...everything. The linux kernel is only one small part of the system LFS sets up...to be specific this chapter installes the kernel. There are a few others that have a relation to the kernel like the installing of the kernel headers in stage1 and stage2 or setting up grub...but that's pretty much it. Every other software LFS install sis NOT the linux kernel.
Edit: For the differences between a LFS and just a kernel. Only with a linux kernel you don't have a working system. The kernel doesn't provide any shell to allow you to make input as user or start programs. The linux kernel is just the layer in your system that talks to hardware...you as user almost never interact with the kernel at all. For a useful system lots of other programs are needed.
So for the why it took so long...a few reasons.
First you need already a linux system...LFS installs a system from an existing linux system. There are some crosscompiling guides but those came even later I think. So first we needed some distros.
And then...because it is actually pretty complicated to get the order of building the dependencies for a working system right. LFS didn't start out in a vaccum...it build already on experience gained by making distros.
And last....well, LFS is a luxury...not a necessity. Getting working linux systems for sure was a higher priority than documenting how to do it. In fact as far as I remember LFS was started exactly because such documentation was lacking..it was the result of building linux distros not their origin.
You probably just wiped the partition table then. It's likely that a lot of the data can be recovered. Personally, I'd send it in to a data recovery company if it were important long-term work, but if you absolutely don't want to do that then I'd do this:
1) Go buy a 1.5 TB drive from Wal-Mart
2) Copy all of the data from your 1TB drive to that as such:
dd if=/dev/1TB DRIVE DEVICE of=/media/*1.5TB DEVICE MOUNT FOLDER/drivedata.img bs=4M
3) Use something like TestDisk to recover the filesystem.
As always, YMMV.
A small cheap x86 business mini / ultra mini box (dell/lenovo/HP). Any 6th+ gen intel CPU, 4gb ram and whatever disk space will be fine for your needs. Stick an intel dual NIC card in it.
Install OPnsense: https://opnsense.org/ and away you go. OPNnsense will give you the power of a huge enterprise level router/switch for basically little cost besides some cheap hardware and some time.
The ADSL modem is another story, you might be stuck with that depending on your ISP.
A package like this should contain almost anything he might need to prototype something. The only thing he could need later on if he wants to finalize a project would be a soldering iron, but that could be added later on.
>Then you have distros that are bleeding-edge. Arch is the best known example of this. It's rolling release, meaning updates to programs are pushed to users not long after being released uptream. This can result in breakages as things are not as heavily tested as in the previously mentioned distros.
Although this is not untrue, and I think you typed up a great summary post, I'd just like to add that aside from things like the move to systemd or the shift to /usr/bin there usually isn't much to worry about. And they do publish notes on their main website when user intervention is expected, such as the link posted above.
I've started to object a bit to the idea of calling Arch bleeding edge because we're assigning that label to packages that were released as stable by the developers of those applications. So before they go through the testing that Arch does do, they have first also gone through whatever internal QA the upstream devs have done.
I don't use Arch, btw. :-) (Though I do run a derivative on two of my boxes.)
1. Yes. Separate your commands with && or a semicolon, like so:
command1 arg1 && command2 arg2
command1 arg1 ; command2 arg2
The first one executes command2 only if the first one succeeds, whereas the second one executes both regardless.
2. Look into aliases. Here is a link I found from a quick search.
3. Most shells have tab completion - the common ones, bash and zsh, do. Start to type a file as an argument of a command, start typing a file name, then hit tab. Pressing tab repeatedly will loop through all the files beginning with what you typed.
Nope. I would prefer to, but I quite enjoy Netflix, even if it means DRM and Chrome (which is generally the best browser, IMAO). Don't really play many games, but Steam and some closed-source games are nice. I think so far this year, I played ~10 hours of Postal 2, ~20 hours of 0 A.D (edit: which is open-source, and definitely worth checking out!, and ~10 hours of X-Com 2 or something like that. I also have an Xbone that I play a bit more (though not much more, due to lack of time).
There are usually 5-6 TTY's available on most distributions. You can access them via Ctrl-Alt-F1, Ctrl-Alt-F2, etc.
There are also a few terminal multiplexers, like GNU Screen and tmux. These allow you to have many more "screens" available and also offer other functionality (like splitting the screen into sections, disconnect the session and reconnect at a later time, etc).
The current answers are decent, but surprisingly not thorough, or sort of incomplete.
Short answer: A huge NO
Longer answer: a distribution like Ubuntu (I can't think of any other distributions) doesn't currently (as far as I know), and very good chance won't in the future, but as you showed, they did do certain things some people didn't like.THAT SAID, as far as I understand that feature was disable-able/removable, and even what it did do wasn't super crazy or invasive, just stuff like search query logging which is pretty weak (of course R. Stallman will say that's getting their foot in the door and a slippery slope, or even merely that even that in itself is totally unacceptable, but most people aren't even close to sharing his specifics of opinion).
Anyway, virtually all distributions of Linux aren't owned by a company and hence have no reason to do such a thing (I guess one other exception might be Chrome OS, but that's typically hardware limited to Chromebooks). Even one of the few that is owned by a company immediately pulled that feature after introducing it.
One notable exception is Android, if you count that as Linux (it is certainly not GNU-Linux, but it uses the Linux kernel so many people still consider it to be Linux). Google has all sorts of stuff that they watch and use. Although for both PCs and mobiles (but especially mobiles), frequently the biggest issue to privacy is simply with the programs and web services that you use, not the OS itself. If you use Android and don't like how Google has you in their pocket, you should easily be able to switch to LineageOS
It sounds like Joplin would be a good fit, unless you need OneNote-style drawing/handwriting support. Joplin can be entirely offline, or you can sync with a local folder, self-hosted network drive, webdav, or nextcloud server (it also supports regular ol’ dropbox, onedrive, etc.)
It’s FOSS, actively developed, and has great mobile and desktop apps.
It supports client-side end-to-end encryption as well, so even if you choose to use dropbox/onedrive/AWS to facilitate syncing, you can mitigate any privacy concerns.
Another vote for Blender. It's free, it's very powerful, there's a ton of online tutorials on its use, and a large reddit community in /r/blender. It's also fully cross-platform.
So it's to be a server, no desktop environment, one that you could administer by way of SSH sessions -- no connected monitor, no keyboard or mouse. I suggest Ubuntu server, which is meant for this role.
The thing which I would recommend to you most is Manjaro KDE
I understand You won't happily consider something made from Arch, But beleive me, It is very stable..... It uses its own Repository cycle which is indeed quite stable
Plus it comes with the latest and the most beautiful version of KDE Plasma
And also the whole time using it, I never came across even a single dependency issue (a.k.a the greatest nightmare of every linux user ever)
You can always message me if ya need any help
Firefox also supports some additional security measures that Chrome doesn't fully or natively implement. It's also got a great mobile experience for people who like to read.
This depends some on what your setup actually is. Are you securing a workstation or a server? What are your concerns/what do you want to protect against?
I found Prismbreak to be a good starting point for some things. Server security is harder and more complex, though.
Well, texmaker website has a contact section here;
You could ask about it there i suppose.
I personally do not know if they use a public bug tracker or mailing list.
Not really something useful in you case, but it's interesting to see how small a linux device can be (storage, webserver and wifi in a SD-card)
MX, MX is base on Debian Stable and still support 32-bit. Ubuntu is base on Debian. So look for Debian base distro's or go with vanilla Debian. MX is just setup prefect for me. So I'm a MX user.
I no longer use Mac, I have Ubuntu server loaded on my iMac.
However, I really found that the best thing to do was simply to use Homebrew (<strong>https://brew.sh/</strong>) rather than trying to make Mac be a proper X-based environment.
If you want a Unix experience, Mac will forever frustrate you. It is built and locked down to be a user-oriented OS with a controlled, integrated desktop environment that is not based on X or Wayland. There is the ability to do 'Unix-like' things under the covers with the shell. But it won't ever feel like Linux or Unix unless you do so much violence to it as to cause issues for yourself down the road.
All major distros these days support UEFI out the box without any real issues. So pick whichever one you prefer. If you like Arch and just want something easier to install but familiar try one of the Arch derivatives like antergos or manjaro.
other's answered your questions, I will say 2 things you need to know:
lutris.net and protondb.com to check if your games run. keep in mind that the list of playable games will grow as quite recently we got anticheat working on linux
EDIT: we got ''anticheat working'' coming to linux because of valve and the steam deck
If you want to keep you current setup you don't need to remove Mint first, just overwrite it with the new distro and you're done.
Edit: also if you wish to try several different distros before deciding I suggest you use virtual machines - Virtualbox - it's A LOT faster than reinstalling everything every time.
/* win32-test.c /
/ original author: hmjd
HANDLE h = CreateFile("test.txt", // name of the file
GENERIC_WRITE, // open for writing
0, // sharing mode, none in this case
0, // use default security descriptor
CREATE_ALWAYS, // overwrite if exists
/* win32-test.c */
$ x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc win32-test.c
$ find test.txt
find: `test.txt': No such file or directory
$ wine a.exe
$ find test.txt
The executable works in my Windows VM too. No idea how well this method works with more complex operations.
You're on Arch? Learn about compiling from source. Write some PKGBUILDs for some software not already in the AUR. Make your own local repo and add your new packages to it. With any luck, you'll run into plenty of problems along the way that should get you learning.
10 GB (Core & Education) or 20 GB (Ultimate)
It is the exact size it stated. You chose a distro to “ease the transition from Windows” for your friend. That comes with all sorts of graphics and programs to accomplish that. If you want to preserve space, you will need to find a smaller footprint distro, cull your home directory or buy a larger storage device.
> This declares a strong, but not absolute, dependency.
> The Recommends field should list packages that would be found together with this one in all but unusual installations.
> This is used to declare that one package may be more useful with one or more others. Using this field tells the packaging system and the user that the listed packages are related to this one and can perhaps enhance its usefulness, but that installing this one without them is perfectly reasonable.
So basically...install recommended unless you are absolute certain you don't want it and know what the consequences are. "Recommended" is more like "Yes, the package can run without this other package theoretically...but not so sure if it makes sense that way" while "suggested" is more "If you install this package as well you will have additional functionality that might be useful for you"
For example for an archive manager frontend tar, gzip and bzip might be recommended...the frontend would still start without them but couldn't do anything useful. Additional archive packages that can also be handled like zoo or lha would rather be suggested. Of course depends a lot on the package and what the core functionality is.
For young one's, I try to do educational focused OS's.
Steam is standalone. The only options are family library sharing and disabling the thousands of adult/hentai games they are flooded with.
Anything beyond that I deal with at the router/IPS with proxy filtering(https://opnsense.org/). As far as youtube/instagram/etc, that's a pedo rabbit hole. Best you can do there is pay attention to questionable stuff, because child grooming is apparently fine, but being conservative gets you banned.
The internal Linux kernel API that drivers use is subject to change with every Linux release. There is no attempt at backward-compatibility in this API.
I've never used "Alfred", but there is something which looks very similar on Linux named "Albert":
There's a decent list of app launchers here also:
Be careful about running any command you find on the internet though. A lot of people like to troll and tell you to run sudo rm -rf / which deletes every file from your system.
sudo rm -rf /
Sudo is “super user do” basically the equivalent of run as administrator in windows, it runs whatever comes after it with root level permission. rm is “remove” and can remove files like so “rm /path/to/file” The -rf after rm is a flag (dashes are flags used to specify certain functionalities in commands, different for each command), the r is “recursive” which means it will delete all files and folders it finds from your path, and f is “force” to tell rm to disregard errors and just delete. The / is the root directory, basically equivalent to C: on windows.
https://cheat.sh is really good for quickly finding out usages of some commands. You can also most of the time use “man <insert command here>” (stands for manual) and you’ll get an overview of the command in question and it’s flags.
The average desktop user is unlikely to care which window system they use. If you don't already have a reason to switch from one to another, then there is little to no point in switching.
There is of course no answer to your question where there is no method by which to evaluate either case, even if it was an unambiguous binary choice, but some relevant questions are answered in the Wayland FAQ.
Most folks would be advised to stick to whatever is offered by default in their desktop distribution of choice since it is likely to be the best integrated and supported. You should switch and report back on your experience.
It doesn't just mean that you can read it, but that everyone can. A big premise behind advocating open source is that with enough eyes on the code, no one can tamper with anything without it being noticed.
And it's working. I've seen many times over the years someone try to whisk their code (good or bad) past everyone and get it into a project, only to be met with a huge amount of resistance. Code in these projects is versioned (see VCS) and all changes are backed up and recorded. It's a big process to get your code in these things, and none of it goes unchecked. Remember that open source doesn't mean that just anyone can change the (official) code.
And while the larger acceptance that the code is secure is built around trust, it doesn't earn that without continuously rigorous proof. Beyond the devs' concerns, many major institutions and industries internationally rely on Linux, and there is a highly vested interest for them to ensure the same concerns you have don't exist.
Debian is a safe bet. I'm using Debian testing with just one issue last year (concerning privative Nvidia drivers and a kernel update).
I find Debian testing quite balanced between updates/stability for my needs. You can check current version of packages in Debian branches here: https://www.debian.org/distrib/packages).
BTW, I am a professional software engineer and use this as my main workstation (although I wouldn't choose Debian testing for production environments, of course).
Dual boot is probably the better solution. Especically since you are using them for school. Also check to see if any of them can be run using WINE. You can check for WINE compatibility here: https://appdb.winehq.org/
Check for alternative applications:
Using a VM might work as well, try it, it might work well for your use case.
Linux Problem Solving
Step 1: Create or locate the relevant logs.
Step 2: Read the relevant logs, or get someone well versed in the arcane arts to decipher them for you. If you post them here or over on /r/linux_gaming someone will probably have a look.
After doing that, with a bit of luck you'll have moved past "it's not working" and should have some idea what's going wrong, and can focus on fixing that specific issue.
When things don't work, it's usually not an impossible mystery on Linux - something in your system is probably trying to tell you about it.
In this case, you'll be wanting the Steam client log (/tmp/dumps/$username_stdout.txt on my system) to see what Steam is doing, and if it's a Windows game you'll want the Proton log for that game: https://github.com/ValveSoftware/Proton/wiki/Proton-FAQ#how-to-enable-proton-logs.
> I'm going to use it to create a web server to test things,
You probably want Ubuntu Server. See also: help.ubuntu.com/lts/serverguide/web-servers
I personally use TLP. Laptop mode tools or powertop would probably work equally. I've been able to get 2-3 more hours of battery life with a decent configuration.
Well you could try Linux from scratch and see if that is able to obtain the tweaks your looking for. I've never went that route due to Arch having enough flexibility for my needs. Good luck
If you're not using Nvidia you should be basically fine. My personal recommendation is swaywm. It's basically a better i3 and for Wayland. I've used it for a few months now and I prefer it over i3.
> I tried following a guide on a forum
Ahh, yes - forums... always better that the MX website - and particularly the linked follow along video showing a dual-boot installation...
> Lubuntu.net is no longer under the control of the Lubuntu project (we can't say more at this time except that we are in no way affiliated with FOSSASIA)
Apparently they're not on friendly terms.
Make sure to use ISOs that has been tested. You can find those versions from here. If you are using a version that haven't been tested, they will ignore your questions😁
Win9x is a bad comparison...it's not a preemptive multitasking system...more just a glorified UI on top of DOS.
So getting down to exactly the win9x specs is really a bit hard on linux if you want a graphical interface (If you can do with just with a shell it's no real problem). But there are several small systems that come pretty close: DSL needs a 486 with 16MB ram, 50 MB harddisk. Debian's minimum requirements for a system with desktop are 128MB RAM and 5GB harddisk space...pretty much comparable to XP.
The lack of 386 support is a compiler problem...gcc doesn't support 386 anymore as far as I know so to make executables that still run on 386 processors you would have to go to very old versions of gcc that most likely can't compile modern programs. So 386 support is really dead...not much that can be done there.
And both examples provide far, far more than windows 95. Maybe you don't remember it...but windows 95 didn't even come with a TCP/IP stack by default. No internet connection without installing additional software/drivers. It also had only one filesystem..FAT. No logging daemons, no usb support...it's easy to forget how little win95 really did.
Yeah… let the argument-by-analogy go.
The Debian website works. And it uses current technology: http is the most popular way to access information on the internet, by far, and there's no replacement on horizon. Will webpages be supplanted someday by some newer, better technology? Of course. Does that mean that it's wrong to have a mind-numbingly dull webpage right now? Of course not.
The Debian website isn't trying to sell anything. You might think it is, or might even think that it should be, but it's just not. You'd be well advised to learn to appreciate the stark dullness of ww&#8203;w.debian.o&#8203;rg.
Say you're working on a project called "FOO". There are a bunch of files on your computer that are part of FOO. You are regularly adding files, deleting files, and updating files.
Occasionally, you make mistakes. Delete something you shouldn't have, or make a change that causes more problems than it solves.
A good backup system can help you recover from those mistakes. But what if you are collaborating with others on FOO? And what if you want to work on FOO from multiple locations?
And, what if you don't want to clutter up FOO's files with your half-baked ideas that really aren't ready to be shared with your collaborators?
That's when you might use git. With git you create a master bundle that contains all of FOO's files, and all versions of those files. People also working on FOO pull down that bundle, and push up any new versions of FOO's files that they are ready to share. You can then pull down any and all updated files, and not have to worry that you're working on some out-dated version of FOO.
In short: with git you can collaborate on a collection of files that are version-controlled.
Also, when you want to know who changed what, git has tools for that. When two people push updates to the same file, git has tools to help you merge the updates.
It should be noted, though, all of these tools within git are geared for plain-text files. It is a tool aimed at people writing code. While you can use git for versioned collaboration of any sort of file, the merging and conflict-resolution tools aren't going to be of much use for non-plain-text files.
echo 'deb blah ... blah' | sudo tee --append /etc/apt/sources.list
sudo sh -c "echo 'something' >> /etc/privilegedfile"
systemd log files are stored in binary, meaning that you can't cat/less/grep them - as a sysadmin I initially hated this and it was my biggest (and only real) gripe with systemd. That is, until I actually started working with them. Say you want to view all logs for nginx: journalctl -u nginx will do that for you. Possibly more awesome is this self-explanatory command: journalctl --since "2015-01-10" --until "2015-01-11 03:00"
journalctl -u nginx
journalctl --since "2015-01-10" --until "2015-01-11 03:00"
This Digital Ocean article has a good summary
Since OP is dealing with a chihuahua, he should probably stick with Puppy Linux indefinitely. The chihuahua lapdog series is really great for lightweight fun and portability, but comes at the cost of storage space, and so larger distros sometimes cause problems. This is most often the case with the classic "small dog syndrome," the distro thinks it's in a larger dog than it actually is. You can also often get memory issues and shake.exe launching repeatedly due to overstimulation errors. Puppy is so small it typically avoids these.
Alternatively, if you ever want to upgrade to a larger model, I'd recommend Black Lab Linux. It's more robust, powerful, and really easy to train to your needs. Plus, it's retriever times are amazing.
Ubuntu is a Linux distribution.
If the meaning of that is unclear, then yes, I'd suggest you do start with the very user-friendly Ubuntu, or Linux Mint.
There's also Elementary OS and many others that are geared toward new users converting from Windows. Check out DistroWatch for a list of popular distros (distributions ['flavors' of Linux]) and what their intended use/audience is.
I learned it a year or two ago, before I thoroughly customized I just made sure I knew enough to at least pull up firefox. Then from there I just went to https://i3wm.org/docs/userguide.html and kept that open for awhile until I felt comfortable enough to not need it.
You can’t, for a few reasons. One is that RAM is used to store more than just data for applications; e.g., it also stores information about the mounted filesystems. The different sorts of data count differently toward determining when it’s time to start paging things to swap. This is what the vfs_cache_pressure value is for—differentiating between the pressure caused by filesystem data and application data. (Re: www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/sysctl/vm.txt.)
Another reason you can’t tune your swap usage that way is that the available settings aren’t that simple. E.g., while the swappiness setting can be any value from 0-100, it doesn’t map to percentages of RAM or anything like that. It’s simply a scale—lower numbers require higher pressure to initiate swapping.
And yet another reason is that the ratio of used-to-available RAM isn’t the only thing that determines when things get paged to swap. If the kernel determines that some data is sufficiently stale, it will get paged to swap, irrespective of how much RAM is available.
For more gory details, see <em>Understanding the Linux Virtual Memory Manager</em>.
G++ is probably compiling your code as PIE (position independent executable). Some tools will claim that those executable are shared libraries. This is something you can ignore.
> Visual Studio Code
Just installed it, and this pops up..
These people. They just can't let go. Looks nice otherwise.
Have you tried Linux From Scratch?
It isn't really a distro, but it may help you learn more of the innards of how Linux is put together. I've only started recently, so I really don't know how in depth it will go for what you are looking for, but from almost everyone I've talked to, it's a good way to learn Linux in a pretty in depth way, while making your own distro.
I am pretty sure that CPU actually supports PAE - it just doesn't report it. There are workarounds, though with 512 MB RAM it may be beside the point. Puppy's a go-to option. BunsenLabs also offers a lightweight, snappy desktop based on Debian and a non-PAE kernel ISO. It's pretty nicely polished.
openSUSE Leap. Why this over other distros?
(1) YaST. YaST is their system administration tool which is unique in the Linux world. It's a purely graphical interface where everything a new user would need is in one location. User creation, network config, partitioning, etc. is on one screen.
(2) Desktop environments. Unlike most other Linux distros, openSUSE supports multiple DEs in the same distro. You can try KDE, Gnome, MATE, Xfce, etc. without having to boot into another distro to try a different DE.
(3) openSUSE Leap (as opposed to Tumbleweed) is very stable and mirrors SUSE's Enterprise Linux used by corporate clients. So there's excellent documentation and updates won't break the system. openSUSE is also one of the oldest and most mature distros out there. For some reason it doesn't get a lot of love on Reddit.
I'm a 20+ year Linux user who uses CentOS, Ubuntu, and openSUSE daily. For a stable, nice looking desktop system I always recommend openSUSE because of how easy it is to administer. For servers, CentOS because of SELinux. Ubuntu only if you have to.
>you can't even install vim without xorg on arch!
What on earth are you talking about? Nowhere is Xorg mentioned as a dependency for vim.
>but arch has about no options for any adjustments on distribution level.
I have no idea what this means.
>no choice in dependencies,
Package dependencies isn't decided by you, but by what the package actually requires. You're free to attempt to build a package from source without the required dependencies I guess...
>no offering of alternative for base packages,
You're free to install base and base-devel if you want to, and you're free not to install them. You can pick individual packages from base if you want, or you can create your very own base package.
>Arch is not a customizable and slim distribution..it is quiet the opposite. So please, arch really has a lot of advantages that makes it a great distro. There is is no need to be less truthful when praising it...really plenty of other things that speak for arch. It only creates confusion and ill-informed people.
You're the one who is ill-informed here.
musescore is open source and linux native. There is an official AppImage available or your distro may have it in their repositories. https://musescore.org/en/download
A text based option is lilypond, which has GUI editors like frescobaldi or denemo:
Boot off the install media and reinstall grub. If you installed Windows after linux then Windows most likely overwrote your MBR.
You can always just reinstall linux (if there isn't anything in there that you need to save) as most linux installs will recognize Windows installs and automagically add them to grub. If not, it's easier to edit grub and restore your Windows partition than vice-versa.
Take a look at this: How to reinstall grub...
Toward a couple of people here so far:
Why would bother even lurking in a /r called "Linux Questions" if this is your attitude toward people who come here looking for answers to questions (easy or hard) or simple guidance? Why?
This is not the place for snarky, profane, name calling.
So stop being insufferable whinging cunts and leave if you cannot be bothered to offer anything more than rudeness tinged with an hint of smug superiority. Yeah, really.
The first command does allow everyone to see that it's a zip archive and the list of files. Additionally, it can leave the password in your command line history. To also encrypt the list of files add -mhe=on and to make 7za ask for password interactively, use -p without actually adding the password itself.
I'm not an expert on encryption, so I can't say anything beyond that pertaining to encryption itself. Although both seem to provide strong AES-256 encryption for the data. However, you should also consider the differences between the formats:
There is also the dar archiver that seeks to remedy all the shortcomings of tar and supports per-file compression and encryption, but it is much less widespread and somewhat more cryptic in usage.
VSCoders (looking at you, u/CalcProgrammer1 and u/pnutjam), have you tried VSCodium?
From what I understand it's exactly the same, but without the 'Microsoft customization' (whatever that means). I'm not a FLOSS/FOSS purist, so it doesn't really matter that much to me - just wondering how it compares to the 'official' product. A few of my Windows-only friends swear by VSCode, so I might give that a shot :)
> I play some games but not many
Take a look at /r/linux_gaming https://lutris.net and https://protondb.com.
> I've watched a couple of arch install tutorials and it really doesn't seem that hard, just a bit laborious.
> Once you install arch is it really that hard to use?
no. If you're alright with using the shell/terminal you will be absolutely fine.
Linux already does this as part of how it handles file systems. Almost all of your free memory will be used to cache files from disk. Writes also go to memory first and are periodically committed to disk. You could increase the commit interval from the default to something larger like every few hours, but that would effect the whole file system. But you could create separate partitions for where the log files go and mount them with a high commit interval. Keep in mind you will lose data in a crash or sudden power loss, even if you go with the ram disk idea instead. If your system is stable and you have a UPS, it should probably be fine though.
See here for some more mostly related details: http://superuser.com/a/479384/437288
"The kernel" being able to provide "an ABI" is the total fantasy here.
There is 0% chance that you will ever be able to agree on a uniform interface across all distributions just so your proprietary driver can work. The strength of the kernel is in its flexibility and rapid development and it won't be given up lightly.
How much ram are you trying to save. What are your constraints? More info is needed here to even ascertain if what you want is possible.
Here is a start.
> We're focusing on aspects like the kernel and management (processor, memory, file, resource, and concurrency).
Then why do you need to focus on Kali?
Every Linux will behave the same in those categories because all are using the Linux Kernel.
Unless your project involves a very very detailed deep dive into the differences between the different Linux Kernel versions and the changes to stuff like the CPU scheduler or memory management of the years, it does not really matter what Linux distribution you look at.
The topics you are interested in happen only in the Linux Kernel, the userland and thus the rest of the distribution is irrelevant.
You might just start at https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/scheduler/index.html and https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/vm/index.html and work your way out from there.
Are you new to Linux? Why on earth are you using Kali as your main OS? By the sounds of it, you have no real reason to be using Kali at all. It's meant for pentesting, not general use. They have an official document on their website all about this -- I suggest reading it.
You'd be better off using something else based on Debian like Ubuntu, Pop!_OS, etc. Both of those make installing GPU drivers for nvidia a breeze. Not to mention you'll actually get better performance on them, especially for your use case. Can also install the linux-zen kernel for increased performance.