Marine biologist here (well, sort of. I also study terrestrial species but mostly work on whales and sea turtles these days). The "legs" are actually a unusual feature of belugas called ventrolateral abdominal fat pads, two long ridges of firm blubber that can be tensed and raised slightly by the abdominal muscles so that they stick out a little from the rest of the body. Belugas tense and raise them during rolls and when swimming upsidedown. Belugas have no dorsal fins and so it seems they are using these fat ridges as temporary stabilizer fins, deploying them only when needed. (It's thought that they may have lost the dorsal fins so that they could surface to breathe in tiny holes in pack ice without a dorsal fin getting in the way - this may also be the reason that they have an unusually flexible neck.) Their cousins the narwhals, another pack-ice whale with no dorsal fin, also have these fat pads, though the ridges are not as large and obvious as in belugas.
Here is the research article describing the fat pads and proposing their function as stabilizer fins.
edit: So the link has parentheses in it and I can't remember how to tell reddit to ignore the parentheses. Google "belugas fat pads ResearchGate" to find the free full-text version.
edit 2: TIL about putting \ before a parenthesis. Thanks guys
Yeah, but it's not really 'society' that considers this. The difference in age preferences between men and women is almost certainly largely genetic. Men prefer younger women in societies around the world, and women prefer older men in societies around the world. There's lots of research on this.
Crazy that the ancient ocean hypothesis was (basically) confirmed by evidence of something so dramatic. The lead author is so restrained in this interview:
"Then, of course, there is the fact that the discovery of tsunami deposits represents definite evidence for the existence of the early Mars ocean."
Oh, by the way, we figured that whole giant mystery out. I'd have had a harder time containing myself.
This isn't something that either person in the relationship has control over, but the death of a child greatly increases chances of divorce.
Edit: "The analysis reported here, the largest study of bereavement and marital dissolution to date, shows a pattern of higher divorce rates among bereaved parents. This conclusion holds across family sizes, with the strongest effects observed at lower parities."
Hi! Cats are actually a huge issue for conservation biologists and ecology (especially urban) in general. I'm not talking a tiny problem either where it's fine if only a few people do it. Here's a great overview by the mammal society about the effects of domestic predation by felines. And here's a lovely population modeling survey of the non direct predation effects of felines on avian urban populations! Urban areas, by the way, harbor about 20% of all avian species!
And the issue isn't even that mass cats cause huge conservation problems. The often cited example for this is Tibbles the lighthouse cat. Tibbles was brought to Stephans Island, a small island off the coast of New Zealand, by his owner, the lighthouse keeper, in 1894. Tibbles proceeded to single handily drive the Stephans Island Wren to extinction about a year after his arrival. The problem is that cats are not often subsistence predators, and house cats or pets are even less so. The problem is so large that a famous conservationist, John Wamsley, wears the pelt of a feral cat to ceremonies he's invited to as a way to send a message.
I'm not saying that your cat doesn't need to go outside. Or that he's not happy outside or that it's not fair to keep him cooped up. But it's always important to consider what effects unleashing a predator on an unsuspecting ecological system may have.
And here's the open access copy.
I'm gonna need sources. Not news articles mind you, but academic papers.
These sources don't support your claim.
This is not my area of research at all, but I have been interested in this same type of question for some time. The following is a theoretical model for the mechanism: [link]
This comes from the paper called "The mechanisms of massage and effects on performance, muscle recovery, and injury prevention. [link].
I would also advise looking in to muscle spindles. The lengthening of muscle spindles, cause neuronal responses which allow for the relaxation of the spindle, and subsequently the muscles put under tension by that shortened muscle spindle. This is essentially why stretching also feels good. Again, not my area of research, but my physical therapist pointed me in this direction. Wikipedia has some excellent information and so does nih. [link]
It's a rather robust finding in psychology that on average, men are better than women at mental rotation and other visuospatial tasks. It's not entirely unreasonable that this could lead to differences in average parking skills. Here's a paper that looked at parking skill in particular and found men were more accurate and faster. But, small sample, only about 30 participants of each sex, and I don't know if they've adjusted for experience beyond a splitting into beginner and experienced drivers (men drive much more).
In addition certain cultures traditionally had a much less varied diet than what OP refers to. See inuit diet, which is rich in vitamin C just from eating the right types of meat and some berries:
I'm going to disagree about having preferences in partner appearance (which I'm assuming is code for racial characteristics) not being racist.
People are attracted to the familiar and the societal norm (in the US, typically white actors or celebrities). Here's an interesting article by a matchmaker on racial attraction trends she's seen among her clients: [link]
A 2015 study of MSM in Australia found that people with strong preferences for or against dating certain races are, in fact, usually racist. Not always. But frequently enough to be a cause for concern even among other populations. Here's the study if you care to read it: [link]
(Sorry about the links--on mobile)
Except that this could create an imbalance between Hg and Se, which have a mutal detoxification effect. Unless they have a method to remove Se as well, I wouldn't think they should go forward with this.
This particular report does not go in-depth about civil conflict, although it does touch on the mental health consequences of forced migration and civil conflict. Here is a paper that does look at climate change and conflict: [link]
Here's a study from two years ago which shows that 55% of men seeking help for violent partners had received false accusations about physical or sexual abuse from their abusers. It's basically a go-to tactic for abusive women.
Yeah I saw that video of the body left in the tub with the water running. Skin shouldn't just float like that.
Edit: one link for electrocution in bathtub, pics of hands/feet/genitalia (male). Obviously, NSFW/NSFL.
Still looking for the link to the other one. I think it was the same situation, suicide in bathtub with warm or hot water running. Skin was floating in the water, had peeled off of the body. Lovely stuff. (Blech)
/u/Cannytomtom provided a source! /r/nsfd. Direct imgur link: [link]
Again, nsfl, nsfw, and apparently nsfd.
Now imagine trying to clean that out of upholstery.
TWICE's Mina's father does some seriously impressive research.
Jessica played in her high school soccer team.
SNSD's Yoona's mother seems to be absent in her life. She's never actually talked about it, but in a TV show clip about her family, her mother isn't present, and she's never mentioned having a mother, only a father and a sister. (For example, in speeches, she thanks her sister and her dad but doesn't mention a mom, and when she was asked who she had on speed dial on Yoo Heeyeol's Sketchbook, she said #1 is her dad, #2 is her sister, and then there's no one else.) Knowing that, this fancam is hearbreaking.
No, we don't have a pattern of insect size increasing as oxygen levels increase.
The giant "dragonflies" look like dragonflies, but they are members of the order Meganisoptera, which is different from modern dragonflies.
Meganisopterans lived in the Carboniferous and Permian. They show up around the time that oxygen levels peak and are still present in the fossil record as the rock record indicates oxygen levels are dropping. There are large specimens dated to the Late Permian, which some sources of data indicate had the lowest atmospheric oxygen levels of the last 500 million years.
So right now the evidence indicates that they were supported just fine in atmospheres similar to or lower in oxygen than ours.
Also, where meganisopterans occur alongside members of the same order as modern dragonflies, the dragonflies are not gigantic. Meganisopterans go extinct at the end of the Permian in a huge mass extinction, after which dragonflies increase in size (but don't become gigantic) even though oxygen levels are low. And dragonflies don't get huge when oxygen levels increase again in the Jurassic. To be able to say there's a pattern you'd have to track insect size changing as atmospheric oxygen levels changed, and that's not the case.
That's really interesting about the D and L glucose structures. If I'm reading this abstract correctly, the L glucose can be synthesized cheaply using a specific technique.
One of the reasons being is that they're remarkably resistant to cancer! Magnificent creatures indeed.
As a whale scientist, I'd suggest peeps take the widely quoted figure of 211 years old with a fistful of salt though. That particular estimated age was an outlier within the data produced from this analysis, and the individual whale's estimated age was not corroborated with other lines of evidence (using their eye globes etc.) as with other individuals from the same study.
Other evidence, including indirect estimates from old harpoons still lodged in bowheads, place maximum lifespan somewhere around the 140-160 mark.
Still pretty cool though!
Yeah, the wall of references reeks of "Google dump". Which sucks because (a) it seems almost certain that /u/Pejorativez hasn't read them all; and (b) even if he/she has, the goal of an "actually, that's not true" post should be to bring out a few important and convincing references and explain their relevance, not to bury the reader under an avalanche of resources that nobody is going to read.
Edit: Yeah, first random link I clicked on has no discernible connection to nutrition timing.
It's not really delayed, it just happens irregularly. Here's a graph showing the past reversals. Black is like today, white is flipped. Notice the flips take place at irregular intervals.
>Keith T, 2004, effectiveness of homework in school and out of school
Here's the direct link for those of us who like to fact check: [link]
I love that the dude arguing that " Research has shown that homework at home isn't effective." provides this link to back himself up, and his own source contradicts what he says.
[From page 205] "the present findings strongly support out-of-school homework as the more effec-
tive activity for learning. Out-of-school homework had strong effects on stu-
dents’ GPAs, and smaller (but still important) effects on achievement test scores.
Thus, high school students will likely experience greater learning benefits from
completing homework at home"
Guess he needed more reading comprehension homework.
They are directly targeting civilians and are completely focused on hospitals,” Ajjaj said. “In the beginning we thought it was simply indiscriminate, but there is repeated targeting of hospitals.”
“There is great danger in giving the GPS locations because the targeting of the hospitals is definite and clear and systematic,” he added.
You blow up one hospital it might be an accident. You blow up 100 hospitals and it starts looking suspicious. After <strong>360</strong> I think its safe to assume you're doing it on purpose
Here's something. It says the energy requirements are only 7-45% less depending on the type of meat, but land use, emissions, and water use are all 90+% lower.
Post-mortem study finds that women and men have similar levels of suicidal intent
Women who use guns to attempt suicide are 47% less likely to shoot themselves in the head than men, attributed to fear of facial disfigurement
"In choosing less
violent methods, women may be seeking to
protect others, while women also choose methods
that are seen as having less of an effect on
Well, as he was carrying a dive computer, we actually know what happened.
He was a Czech citizen (and they have a long history of dying in Croatia :D). Also, he was a cook, not a diver. Here you can see the profile of the cave and the history of his dive computer: Link
He went in and went straight down to the bottom (that's the only way he could travel 50 meters (as you can see his descend on the right pic), and that's exactly how deep the bottom is). Then he immediately went back up - but never to the exit. He probably got lost when entering shallower gallery (which has an entrance similar to cave's exit - it's called false exit on the pic and people who know cave well say that it looks like real exit), instead of going out. The fine silt that got disturbed as he went aroung reduced visibility almost to zero, which got him confused and finally trapped. You can see on the pic that he never again went below 35 meters which is exactly the depth of the shallower cave. He just went in circles there
He stabbed himself before completely running out of oxygen and died in two minutes. Also one of the police officers who went to collect his body drowned, presumably got lost and confused with false exit too. Two more people recently died there.
They state it's the first known and documented case - they searched MEDLINE files and got no hits on "suicide diving".
EDIT: Here's a whole case report, you can read all the details about how they excluded the homicide: [link]
EDIT2: downvoters, please do explain!
From an energy perspective, I find it difficult to comprehend how we are going to come up with something more efficient than the self-replicating, self-sustaining meat producing units that are livestock.
EDIT: Did some quick research into the subject, and found this for those who are interested:
Tuomisto, H. L., & Teixeira de Mattos, M. J. (2011). Environmental impacts of cultured meat production. Environmental science & technology, 45(14), 6117-6123.
In short yes there is evidence of this. It is a long held observation that those whose parents divorced were more likely to get divorced themselves (source). However there is an ongoing debate about the extent to which this trend is weakening (source). The basic idea is that the nature of divorce is changing within society and therefore the way it is 'transmitted' between generations is becoming softened.
There is a lot of research on the intergenerational effects of divorce. The effects of children later in life are quite complex and changing as the nature of divorce itself changes.
Not that I know about. The Inuit, for example, have to eat some pretty interesting things in order to get enough vitamin C to survive. I always cringe a bit when I see those pop culture blog diets that suggest their plan is great because of something they read about Inuit diets. Traditionally, to get enough vitamin C Inuit had to eat raw sea mammal organs like seal livers. Raw has much higher levels of vitamin C than cooked.
Personally, I'd much rather eat an orange.
Interestingly, Hujoel, Cunha-Cruz, Banting, & Loesche (2006) tested this using a sample of 800 children performed over 2 years. Results showed that while self-performed flossing resulted in no reduction in the risk for cavities (dental caries), professional flossing performed 5 times a week reduced cavity risk by 40%. These results suggest poor flossing technique is likely to blame, rather than the ineffectiveness of flossing itself. For a video on proper flossing technique, click here.
Additionally, as others have stated the primary benefits of flossing are for gum health, rather than plaque prevention. For instance, Sambunjak et al. (2011) reported that flossing results in moderate to large reductions in the risk of periodontal gum disease (d = 0.72 at 6 months).
Not even their bodies are designed for their bodies. Once you reach the at-risk-of-breaking-furniture level, your skeleton is totally out of whack, the force on your joints is out of control, and your stabilizing muscles are out of their league. So yeah, a certain level of clumsiness can result and yeah, it is "tied back into fatness."
That's super awesome that you figured out the cause of your breakouts. Just a quick note: 91% alcohol is actually too high of a concentration to fully sterilize your brushes and makeup :( it actually evaporates too fast to kill all the bacteria! 70% is definitely better if sterilization is what you're going for :) here's a research gate article explaining it!
Earlier in this thread, someone raised the question of why psychology would even bother confirming "common sense". The parent comment is a shining example.
There has been conflicting evidence about whether or not narcissists actually have low self esteem or whether the self esteem and narcissism constructs are even related. One qualification is that I am not referring to narcissism as personality disorder but as continuous personality trait, so I am talking about the same thing the parent comment is.
Edit: and here's a link for all the narcissism cirlejerkers who won't believe me (not implying that the parent comment is one, too)
Hey, I might be batting way off-target, but this might be a rewarding read?
The Search for Sexual Intimacy for Men with
Cerebral Palsy, Russell P. Shuttleworth, Ph.D.
While it focuses on the issue from a masculine perspective, it may have useful parallels.
Attempt to fix your broken link
Oh hey, it worked! It broke because the link contained parentheses. You can use a backslash to escape them like so:
It's support material. Objet printers (and this looks like a Connex model) encase the entire part in a convex shell of support material, including a very thin shell on the top.
Source: have cleaned absurd numbers of objet prints.
Edit: here's an example. It looks like the base material is Vero Gray or Vero Blue. The off-white shell is support material.
The popular press frequently suggests people with African ancestry are genetically better at running. The scientific consensus seems to be nah, they aren't.
It's easy to think whoever's best at something right now is fixed and eternal. A few decades back it would've looked like Finns were inherently better runners than everyone else.
with domestic violence its a 70/30 split.
70 percent of the time the male is the victim. He just doesnt get any coverage or support.
a quick search dredged up this little gem of higher education.
a quick taste of the relevant SJW insanity within:
>In several different classrooms, students of color vocalized experiences and arguments that seemed developed in response to what our White students were saying, even though these particular students had not yet been brought into conversation. Indeed, before the breach and the actual dialogue, these
student voices were communal and dialectic.
Looking at global moth distribution seems to give a pattern similar to this
Cold climates such as Siberia or Greenland seem to have the lowest numbers of moths.
Scholey, Andrew, et al. "Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress." Physiology & behavior 97.3 (2009): 304-312. pdf
Smith, Andrew. "Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers." Nutritional neuroscience 13.1 (2010): 7-16. pdf
Yeah, men are always terrorists
>Their motives are viewed as personal, and thus their personal lives are intensely investigated after an attack. The goal of that investigation isn’t to understand the woman – at least in the sense that we wish to understand her male counterpart. The goal is, instead, to find reasons to explain away that woman’s violence. This effort is undertaken to make her less of an existential and normative threat. It allows security personnel to ignore the wider security implications of militant women and it allows the targeted society to dismiss the woman as aberrant and not a “real” threat. Unfortunately, the factors that allow women to be successful terrorists are usually not addressed.
This is absolutely true. According to a PHR researcher, one of the (local, not MSF) doctors working in Aleppo was training in pediatric surgery in Germany and went back because he was more needed there.
You seem to be mixing two different things here: strength of gender role expectations, and strength of expectations for suppressing emotions. If both genders have the same expectations for suppressing emotions (which I don't think they do, but if they did), that wouldn't be a gender role, it would just be a societal expectation on everyone.
Here are some sources on strength of gender role expectations:
The abstract of this study notes that past research has shown men being punished more harshly.
> Because past research has shown that men who transgress gender role norms are punished more harshly than women [...]
Also, this study found that men making mistakes in masculine jobs were viewed more negatively than women making mistakes in feminine jobs.
> When female leaders made mistakes in the nursing condition, they were viewed similarly to male leaders. However, in the construction scenario, male leaders who committed errors were seen as signiﬁcantly less task-competent than similar female leaders.
Now to the topic of expectations for suppressing emotions:
> My tendency to cry easily was one reason I had no friends and was bullied in elementary school, and I'm a girl.
I can't comment on your elementary school experience, but let's look at the present. Do you genuinely think that women who cry are perceived as negatively for it as men who cry?
This article talks about how anonymous spaces like Reddit can help people with mental health issues who might not otherwise seek support because of stigma. Do you think that they can also contribute to decreased stigma over time, as people with less exposure to mental health problems come across threads like this?
page linking to the full study, not just the abstract
all of this is based on a 20 person study in 2008 of 10 self reported healthy individuals, and 10 self reported chronically unhealthy individuals.
blood, urine, and sweat concentrations of various elemental metals are measured before and after either exercise or sauna induced perspiration.
when reading the study, keep in mind that sweat elimination is measured in micrograms per liter, (a millionth of a gram per liter of sweat), and averaged out in the low to mid 100's of ug/l.... so you would have to sweat thousands of liters to remove half a gram...at nearly best case. still, it may be a bit more efficient than bloodletting or pissing. please remember that these are accumulative ~~"toxins"~~ elements, so the human body is terrible at disposal of them, otherwise they wouldn't accumulate.
so, from the study:
>According to the findings of this study, sweat analysis
provides an additional method for biomonitoring human
levels of many potentially toxic elements. Biomonitoring
based exclusively on measurements from blood and/or
urine can provide misleading conclusions about the state of
toxicant accrual and can underestimate the total body
burden of xenobiotics. Furthermore, with the abundance of
unsubstantiated information relating to detoxification, evidence from this research demonstrates that there may be a
role for induced perspiration as a preventive and therapeutic measure to assist individuals and groups at health
risk resulting from exposure to and bioaccumulation of
toxic elements. Future studies should explore clinical
health outcomes of induced sweating programs in patients
with toxic element bioaccumulation.
It is the deepest mystery there is. I dedicated a big chunk of my life to just DMT exploration, and it gets really, really wild, like way beyond anything words can do service to. I'd just say that it's real, there are really alien intelligences, humans are not alone here, somehow life matters deeply, and we evolve to whatever we put out minds to.
There have been some really good studies of the DMT experience that have come out in the past couple decades or so. Rick Strassman's research that was presented in "DMT: The Spirit Molecule" was really important. Most of his participants came out talking about other dimensions and non-human entities. And there was an even bigger study of ayahausca, by Professor Benny Shanon, which he wrote about in the book "Antipodes of the Mind." Probably the best book on DMT, imo, was "Supernatural" by Graham Hancock. Strongly recommended.
Also, for anyone REALLY interested in the subject, check out this 50 page technical article that takes the experience very seriously and analyzes it from a scientific perspective:
Made these because all the explanations of disc golf physics online were 200+pages or something like that. Tried to make it as simple as possible. Cut out some mathematics, so if you are interested, just google "gyroscope physics" etc terms.
Feel free to make new / better versions. These were made with paint/gimp, as you can see.
If you have any questions, ask, google the stuff, or read the thesis I copied some of the graphs from:
Close to 150ms for males around 20 ? This is so bullshit lmao.
24yo here sitting around 250ms (equivalent 60yo if we follow your link lol), totally average and is absolutely not relevant in my play.
Believable, scientificaly made test on reaction time vs. age
Left graph is reaction time vs age, right graph is the standard deviation (i.e. dispersion of the results, spread). We see that not only it moves very little but most importantly, as we go to older ages it's much more variable depending on the individual. We can expect veteran cs players to be at the extreme low of their age bracket given their activity.
And ignoring all this, reaction time is a very very very overrated feature for a player. Spacial awareness, precision & game knowledge (among other things) all surpass reaction time by far when it comes to the ingredients that make a great player.
The truth is a little more complicated, but he is actually referencing a real effect.
Yes. You can find more details in:
>Schmelzer, T., & Baillie, R. (2008). Summing a curious, slowly convergent series. The American Mathematical Monthly, 115(6), 525-540. <strong>Link</strong> (no paywall).
Convergence is proved in Theorem 1 and the rest of the paper answers the immediate follow-up:
>Once a series is known to converge, the natural question is, “What is its sum?”
While you're right in that the venom's putative function is to inflict pain/incapacitation between breeding males as a dominance/aggression tool, this review of literature on platypus venom cites three sources for the venom killing dogs used to retrieve platypus during hunting. I think that the source is open access, but in case it is not here is the relevant passage:
> the crural system is generally believed to be both an offensive and defensive weapon rather than a mechanism to immobilise prey. This is because the venom does not appear to have any digestive function, is far less virulent than other animal venoms, and it is produced in significant quantities only during the breeding season (Torres and Kuchel 2000). During this time the spurs appear to be used offensively to assert dominance over other males of the species. They can also be used defensively to avoid potential
predators: there have been recorded deaths of dogs that were used to retrieve stunned O. anatinus during hunting (Grant 1995; Torres and Kuchel 2000; Gerritsen 2002). Unwary humans have also been spurred during the course of their duties as shermen, biologists and zookeepers, but as this is uncommon and there have been no human fatalities from O. anatinus envenomation
As an aside, it's widely regarded as a myth that we are hardwired with learning styles.
I don't mean to be rude, hopefully you found this liberating! You had it in you all along!
I've got two papers that peg income among panhandlers at about $300 a month. Do you have anything that's not local news clickbait about one statistical outlier?
This was written by The Guardian's science editor, which I find a little appalling, because he says stuff like this:
> Embryos start to become male or female at about six to eight weeks.
It's a ridiculous thing to say. Those embryos have always been either male or female, because they have always had the same DNA. Saying that they "become" male or female at 6-8 weeks is like saying that a human embryo only becomes human at week 8, because that's when you start to be able to see clear differences between a human embryo and a rabbit or a pig.
Don't know if you're aware but there's research out there showing a significant decline in empathy in [drumroll] the 3rd year of medical school. You're not alone!
Here's the study: [link]
Full study available here:
Surprised nobody here's mentioned Anakin Skywalker's Borderline Personality Disorder, given that a lot of psych teachers now cite him as an example when teaching it ever since this article came out (warning: PDF/scholarly mumbojumbo)
What cannabis does do is reduce REM (dreaming) sleep. This is helpful for those with intrusive nightmares, as in post-traumatic stress disorder. In general, cannabis used medicinally helps sleep quite effectively by reducing symptoms of pain, spasm, etc., that tend to disrupt it. You can search this page for an article on cannabinoid and sleep: [link]
Nope. I feel qualified to discuss this - [link] - I work on mosquito oviposition and we quantify mosquito eggs very often for our studies. We removed 20,000 egg rafts in a season, which is 4 million eggs. It didn't dent the population and it won't. Why? Because mosquitoes lay many many eggs at a time, very few of which ever reach reproductive maturity. So, we're not doing much more than what would occur naturally.
Additionally, 7 eggs a day per trap is a joke. We use artificial pools to collect eggs. We can get upwards of 300 egg rafts in a 1ft x 1.5ft pool in one single night, that's 60,000 eggs. And we usually have 40 some pools or more, but 300 is the upper end and we typically get (depending on treatment) 30-100 rafts (200 eggs per raft, roughly). We just fling the rafts out into the grass where the larvae die.
It's not hard, you can put out some water, put some nutrients in it and watch them swarm to your pools. Want to eliminate them or deter them? Use fish or amphibian predators. Many mosquitoes hate them, but Aedes don't seem to detect them well, so they oviposit normally and then their offspring are consumed. Unfortunately this led to the over-introduction of mosquitofish to malaria prone areas.
Here's my source!
P.S. Thanks to /u/Alantha for the typo fix. =)
This article is just one study (of many) that shows that humans can in fact detect the flavour of ethanol. Older articles showing similar results are referenced at the end. There is just no denying that ethanol has a noticeable flavour.
Here is the full text on research gate, for anyone who's interested.
One thing to note is that this is from 1996. Given the amount of social change and change in public opinion that's occurred in the past 20 years, it's not clear how much this would translate to today. It would be really interesting to see another study like this done today.
It was really surprising! I wasn't even trying to pick anything remotely controversial; Robert Putnam is a liberal, and his work is extraordinarily well-supported and pretty uncontroversial in his field. And, I think, outside of it too. Bowling Alone isn't exactly The Bell Curve. I wonder if bringing up hand-grip strength would have gotten the same response.
We actually went back and forth on this quite a bit: should we call it an ancient bird? A dinosaur? How can we describe it in the headline efficiently and accurately?
I was personally in the "Dinosaur-Era Bird" camp on this, and here's why. The paper places the wings within Enantiornithes, a highly derived clade of Mesozoic avian dinosaurs that was an evolutionary intermediate between more basal lineages and modern birds. Throughout the literature, there's reference to Enantiornithes as the first large-scale avian radiation. An example: [link]
Also, the paper itself frames this as a bird wing, and as many commenters note, birds are probably living descendants of theropod dinosaurs. We're trying to do right by the science here.
Research actually indicates that "love the sinner, hate the sin" is typically not practised in real life. It's nothing but convenient rhetoric. Lip service.
Gay people are still looked down upon by fundamentalists even when celibate, and heterosexuals who fornicate are viewed more favourably than their sexually active gay counterparts according to Fulton et al (1999).
In an experiment asking religious folks to either help or hinder an individual trying to win raffle money — where this person was portrayed as either a lesbian using the prize to fund a trip to a gay pride event, a lesbian/gay man visiting grandparents (i.e. not trying to "promote" homosexuality as with the gay pride event), or an assumed heterosexual visiting grandparents — Batson et al (1999) found that the straight person was assisted more often than the gay person trying to visit grandparents, despite both groups sharing the same goals.
If you trace back the evolution of the elephant line, it appears early tusks evolved for feeding purposes - stripping bark off tree trunks, and eventually to aid digging for roots (which are still their primary purpose today). Sexual selection seems to have taken hold at some point ("Big tusks mean a big di- I mean, healthier, more successful offspring") too, and they've adopted some courtship and defensive utilities as well (see this study).
It seems they're rather flexible in terms of utility, and adapt themselves well for many purposes.
The difference being the one time the US bombed a hospital they launched an investigation and are being relatively transparent.
Of the nearly 400 hospitals that Syria/Russia has bombed in Syria how many people do you think have been reprimanded? How many investigations were launched?
More precisely, they modeled their law system after Roman law which was predominantly used in the German lands as it acted as a complex unifying force between many princedoms, free cities, dukedoms and other entities in the HRE. The German civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch) started it's development in 1881 and was finished in 1900 and it did influence many legal systems around the world including the Japanese one, but the study of Western law with lectures in Roman law started earlier in Tokyo in 1874 since it provided the historical background and an indispensible means of understanding the western legal system which Japan tried to incorporate (in jurisprudence, this phenomena is called a reception of law) .
Someone with more knowledge of microbiology will have to confirm this, but I think this link explains the process pretty well.
> one incident
The scholarly article to go along with that article. A rib puncture wound suspected to be made by a projectile point is found to be made by a projectile point based on comparative studies with pig ribs.
Elsewhere, anthropologists are slightly more conservative with these results:
"Though conclusive evidence for competitive encounters
between Neandertals and Homo sapiens remains controversial,
many paleoanthropologists believe such encounters
occurred (Shea 2003b; Banks et al. 2008; Conard
2006; Finlayson and Carríon 2007). If competition did occur,
projectile technology would have conferred decisive
not have evidence for coalitionary violence between Neandertals
and humans (cf. Churchill et al. 2009), but if there
were such encounters, projectile weaponry would have
provided key tactical advantages for populations adept at
From another article.
The evidence is extremely scant to support the idea of conflict and/or war between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. I would not jump to the conclusion that such violence occurred on the basis of the existing evidence.
I used to work for a company that recycled used cooking oil. You set up a contract to buy the used oil at a certain price per gallon for a year or whatever (usually between 50¢ and 2$ depending on the market and the restaurant's level of oil usage).
They most likely buy the oil from a company like the one I worked for. We would heat it up really hot in a turbine and it became better fuel through science or something. Then sell to locals and other businesses who want to use the recycled oil.
I hope that helps.
Edit: sorry /u/decepere if I didn't really help answer your question. I misread it thinking you were asking if they maybe used their own oil and how much they produced. I apologize for the confusion.
Edit 2: also here is a little bit of the science
You can try taking n-acetylcystenine, acetyl-l-carnitine and piracetam to try and fix it permanently.
So this paper on a 13 foot black caiman killing a child is what then? Caimans attack far less people then saltwater or Nile crocs. However there is also the factor of massive remoteness of the territory of the caiman, populated mainly by indigenous peoples which may not lead to attacks being widely reported.
Taken from Silicon-air batteries article
>Thermodynamically, silicon is an attractive fuel for battery (fuel cell) purposes.
Silicon–oxygen couple has a specific energy of 8470 W h/
kg and an energy density of 21,090 W h/l . It is outperformed
theoretically by only the H2/O2 system, and is comparable to Al/
O2 couple, having a specific energy of 8146 W h/kg and an energy
density of 21,994 W h/l . Furthermore, silicon is plentiful (eighth
most plentiful element in the universe and the second most plentiful
in the earth’s crust), is non-toxic, and the reaction product
SiO2 is readily reduced back or can be disposed of safely or used in
a multitude of applications (e.g., building materials).
If I'm not reading something wrong lithium-ion batteries have energy density of: 676 Wh/l, 243 Wh/kg.
If they could make silicon-air batteries feasible Battery electric vehicles would be amazing. Their range would be better than ICE cars with best mpgs.
How was it determined which of the Kelly brothers would spend the year aboard the ISS and which would stay on Earth?
I’ve read that there will be more studies about how astronauts fare physiologically on long flights in a few years. Have you learned anything yet from Scott Kelly that will change how long stays on the ISS will be conducted in the future?
From what I understand, sleep debt accumulates as a deviation from what might be described as a peak level of "restedness". As a person goes without sleep, they drop below this level, and when that person then sleeps, they move toward that optimum level again.
I don't think there is any research suggesting that one can - for lack of better phrasing - go above this 100%-rested level. I also haven't see anything suggesting that humans can store rest as we would caloric energy via fat. I could be wrong, and I'd love to be corrected if that's the case.
Here's some related reading:
Benington, J. H., & Heller, H. C. (1995). Restoration of brain energy metabolism as the function of sleep. Progress in neurobiology, 45(4), 347-360.
Cohen, D. A., Wang, W., Wyatt, J. K., Kronauer, R. E., Dijk, D. J., Czeisler, C. A., & Klerman, E. B. (2010). Uncovering residual effects of chronic sleep loss on human performance. Science translational medicine, 2(14)
Women are most content when they have fewer rights.
>Results from more than 90 countries represented in the World Values Survey show that conditions associated with a high level off female relative to male happiness and life satisfaction include a high proportion of Muslims in the country, a low proportion of Catholics, and absence of communist history. Among indicators of gender equality, a low rate of female non-agricultural employment is associated with higher female-versus-male happiness and satisfaction. Differences in the rate of female non-agricultural employment explain part of the effects of communist history and prevailing religion. They may also explain the recent observation of declining female life satisfaction in the United States.
Here's one source from 2015
Another source that explains how Assad and Russia are behind 91% of over 359 attacks on medical facilities
It's not muscle, it's fat. They use these two fat pads for stability since they lack dorsal fins. They can extend and contract them.
I feel like that one which would seem more abusive coming from a woman would be an interesting conversation point. Care to share?
Edit: Okay, I dug through and evidently there are a few, but many are marginally (2%<10%) more likely to be viewed as abusive when perpetrated by a woman:
"Threatened to hurt a pet" (89% vs. 86%)
"Threatened to hurt themselves (61% vs. 52%)
"Used needed money for own addictions/ hobbies" (59% vs. 52%)
"Would not let spouse talk about their feelings" (53% vs. 51%)
"Refused to talk about problems (sulked, etc.)" (22% vs. 20%)
"Moved spouse away from their support system" (23% vs. 17%)
Out of three significant disparities (>10%) only one was free of obvious entry errors (yes, maybe, no =/= 100%):
"Insisted spouse answer every question they asked" (24% vs. ?5%)*(likely 65%)
"Played cruel jokes on spouse" (82% vs. 61%)
"Criticized the way spouse handled house/ children" (25% vs. ?9%)*likely 29%
So evidently the take home is that dudes get a pass on having a nasty sense of humor.
Bear in mind that this is out of 100 polled behaviors and the swing in the other direction (behavior seen as more abusive in men) is much more drastic. The article that OP is referring to is directly found here.
Let me point you to Edzard Ernst and his systemic review of cupping.
You'll find a ton of journal articles about the supposed benefits of cupping on PubMed, but many of them will come from alt-med journals - Journal of Integrative Medicine, Complimentary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Evidence-based Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, etc. All of the studies I read after a pub med search were the same, and I'll admit I stopped after 10 because they made my head hurt. They were small, most of them too small to generate any good data. And used this poor data to make some pretty big claims. And the larger reviews, like this one, basically come to the conclusion that the studies done were poor and more studies are needed.
Ha, you think that's bad. Check out South Carolina's 6th District. Cuts the capital city not just in half, but into three pieces with the 6th district sandwiched inbetween two parts of the 2nd district. It's been specifically drawn to pack as much of the black population of both the Columbia and Charleston metro areas along with all the poorest, blackest rural areas to the south.
Heggarty, Paul. "Linguistics for archaeologists: principles, methods and the case of the Incas." Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17.03 (2007): 311-340.
Like archaeologists, linguists and geneticists too use the data and methods of their dis‑
ciplines to open up their own windows onto our past. These disparate visions of human
prehistory cry out to be reconciled into a coherent holistic scenario, yet progress has long
been frustrated by interdisciplinary disputes and misunderstandings (not least about
Indo‑European). In this article, a comparative‑historical linguist sets out, to his intended
audience of archaeologists, the core principles and methods of his discipline that are of
relevance to theirs. They are first exemplified for the better‑known languages of Europe,
before being put into practice in a lesser‑known case‑study. This turns to the New World,
setting its greatest indigenous ‘Empire’, that of the Incas, alongside its greatest surviving
language family today, Quechua. Most Andean archaeologists assume a straightforward
association between these two. The linguistic evidence, however, exposes this as nothing
but a popular myth, and writes instead a wholly new script for the prehistory of the Andes
— which now awaits an archaeological story to match.
This is a ridiculous concern. The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service has been working on this project for more than 20 years:
I'm on mobile so can't scour the Quarantine Act/Regulations but it would be laughable to think that this hasn't been considered.
~~I think it's possible to maintain a 6-pack while (slowly) bulking, but I don't think it's possible to achieve a 6-pack while bulking.~~
Apparently, there is research showing that you can, in fact, get to 6-pack levels of body fat while gaining muscle. If you want this, you should aim for a weekly BW loss of 0.7%, according to this paper.
> We could see fishless oceans by 2048.
I can answer this one for you. Massively overexagerated. The claim first came from a paper by Worm et al. in 2006 (Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services). It contained the statement that given current rates of fishery collapses, all fish stocks would have collapsed by 2048. It didn't take into account recovery, just the number of stocks there are, and the average rates at which they enter the "collapse zone" of the phase plot. It wasn't a major part of their paper, which focussed on the costs of biodiversity loss, but the statement was in their press release, the media ran with it, and the authors, happy to bask in the adulation, did nothing to correct any misconceptions. As a result, I believe its one of the most thoroughly challenged pieces in modern fisheries literature - this is probably the most comprehensive. Nevertheless, it still gets cited a ridiculous number of times by people with a bit of an agenda. Trevor Branch did a particularly interesting analysis of citation patterns in PLOS recently.
What you quoted is a re-printed press release that exaggerated the opinion (not so much research) article.
This has been debunked in detail.
Other scientists looked at the ancient mummies and skeletons and saw similar or only slightly lower cancer rates compared to modern ones.
Even without going through all that, the claim "There is nothing in the natural environment that can cause cancer. So it has to be a man-made disease, down to pollution and changes to our diet and lifestyle" is demonstrably wrong.
There are: (1) ultraviolet causing melanoma (ask the Aussies), (2) carcinogenic viruses such as HPV bringing us cervical/penile carcinomas and EBV inducing lymphomas, then (3) ever-present background radiation, (4) naturally occurring carcinogens (from forest fires, chlorinated/brominated organics in seawater),.. the list goes on. All that is not modern and was always with us.
Also, if that "cancer is 100% modern" claim was true, there would be near-zero cancer rates in isolated villages far away from civilization. But no, that difference is not drastic - 1.5-2 times lower at best, mostly due to lack of heavy drinkers/smokers and better fitness. But we do not (and did not) actually find extremely low cancer rates anywhere.
TL:DR; Cancer rates are at best 30-50% lifestyle choices/civilization, the other 50-70% are built-in (EDIT: roughly half of those 50-70% is "luck"/predisposition mentioned in the article, another half is "normal" carcinogenic environment, from UV to cosmic rays).
> No, no, the polls are all wrong because Trump voters never tell pollsters that they're voting for Trump because the pollsters will judge them... or something.
Actually this is a real possibility. There is research showing people lie to pollsters - however the evidence isn't promising for Trump. Female candidates almost always outperform their polls. Presumably because people are embarrassed to say they are voting for a female leader. Source: [link]
If people are embarrassed to say they are voting for a women, there is a chance that they are embarrassed to say they are voting for Trump.
EDIT: I'd like to clarify that I am not saying this is definitely happening. I'm saying that there is evidence people do lie to pollsters. Evidence suggests the polls are almost definitely underselling Hillary and there is a possibility they are underselling Trump.
>which kind of conforms with the stereotypes around SJWs
Even so, I don't see as it matters from our perspective as a gender debates subreddit. Surely abuse happens in SJW couples just like it happens elsewhere, and they find ways to handle the cognitive dissonance just like every other abuser who wants to think of themselves as a good person. Without some evidence that this is systemic in any fashion, all this story says even at face value is that at least one bad person is an SJW... which is not really a revelation as bad people are in every large group.
The more interesting discussion here (and indeed the theory that most anti-SJWs talk about but tend to ignore the academics on) is that the case can be made that too much social activism can create a phenomenon known as "moral self regulation" where people excuse bad behaviors because they also have good behaviors or "moral fatigue" which for some reason all the papers focus on medical professions, but basically means you stop caring for people because you've cared beyond your capacity. These are why I say even in the ideal sense, SJW goals are untenable, as they are too taxing on the average psychology. It is possible, though there is no evidence for it aside from the anecdotal so far as I know, that SJWs might be more prone to certain interpersonal behaviors because they are overly concerned with larger issues.
"If a woman is abused, why doesn't she call the police and do it the right way?"
Just shy of 1 in 3 women (31%) just won't call police about domestic violence issues, the most commonly cited reasons being 1: the assailant prevented it, 2: she had no phone, 3: she did not think police would help, 4: she did not want to get her assailant in trouble and 5: she did not want people to know.
Electrical conductivity is one of the hardest topics for students majoring physics. You basically need to learn nearly all branches of physics to finally give a reasonable answer. Here is one, from research gate
But if limited to high school level physics, the author is not wrong. Students are taught conductivity = electron density x charge x electron speed. Since electron density of Cu is higher than Ag, I can guess why he concludes Cu "moves electrons slowly".
Hah. I was in the middle of answering the question when it was put on hold :-(
For posterity, a sketch of my answer-in-progress: For a long time it was thought that functional languages couldn't be fast -- and especially lazy functional languages.
But this was because their early implementations, in essence, interpreted and not genuinely compiled. Simon Peyton Jones was one of a few people who started to come up with a whole series of then-radical ideas about how to implement functional languages directly on "stock hardware". These are documented in his two books:
GHC isn't exactly like those, but its closer to this descendent:
The key notion, in my mind, is that the program becomes a "graph" of dependencies, and each conceptual "thunk" is not a sum type, but an actual piece of code that "knows how" to compute its value, and which is itself overwritten on evaluation with code that actually just returns the already-computed value.
So the insight is that the strict distinction of "data" and "code" which we think of as "fundamental" to how machines work is not how they must work, but is imposed by our compilers. So we can throw that out, and have code (a compiler) that generates self-modifying code (the executable) and it can all work quite nicely.
And that really gets at the root of the issue here.
People don't believe that they can trust someone who isn't extrinsically motivated (via threat of hell, promise of heaven, reciprocating Jesus' sacrifice, etc.) to act with integrity.
Couple this with the human tendency to automatically trust members of our "in-group" (while distrusting members of the "out-group") and it's easy to see how religion might have originated out of a socio-economic necessity for trusting/relating to those we interact with.
But now it's gotten political. The masses refuse to believe that an atheist could act with integrity. Which begs the question: why does anyone act with integrity? The answer: because God is watching.
But extrinsically motivated integrity is no integrity at all.
That's what they mean by "evidence piles up." Scientific consensus is a cumulative effect. In the case of the rapeseed study, this kind of pesticide had been shown to make three species of domestic bees sick (the only three species that can be bred in lab conditions) over the short-term. But they didn't know:
If it contributed to long-term population decline. The new study spans 18 years (9 years before they started using the pesticide in the UK and 9 years after), so now they know it does.
If it had the same effect on wild bees. The new study looks at 62 species' populations over that period, so they can see that bees that pollinate crops with that pesticide suffer drastically more population decline.
Edit: This interview with the lead author is a nice read on the new bee study.
You can read the paper this image comes from here. Basically, it describes how in the 17th and 18th centuries, lichens growing on a human skull (Usnea Crannii Humani) were believed to have healing properties. The lichen would have colonized the skull long after the person's death. Lichens are extremely slow growing, so the skull would need to be exposed for a while and the whole process of colonization and growth would take decades, if not longer. What I find most interesting about it is that it must mean that at this time, you could reliably expect to find human skulls lying on the ground in forests or other natural areas in order to collect the lichens. Maybe they weren't exactly common, but obviously they were there. Probably the result of warfare, famine and epidemics. The paper mentions that Ireland was a notable exporter of Usnea Crannii Humani.
Yes, especially under ultraviolet or visible light. But much of the heat from the sun is coming from infra-red light (over 700nm wavelengths) where the difference in absorption between dark (high melanin content) skin and light (low melanin content) skin is minimal (see figure 9 of this paper).
But with intense enough infra-red light you will still see a difference between black and white skin. Here's a link to a mouse experiment where they shot a near infra-red laser (830nm wavelength) at black or white skinned mice.
> Laser exposure resulted in skin temperature elevation under all of the conditions studied. As expected, greater rises in temperature
were observed in dark-skinned animals relative to white-skinned
This is one reason why light-based medical treatments (and even
laser hair removal) don't work very well (or work too well, depending) on people with dark skin. Their skin heats up too much under the light.
There was also a study done on elite athletes that showed muscle gain while in a caloric deficit as well.
So building muscle while in a caloric deficit is possible assuming you get enough protein and aren't cutting too quickly. They saw lean muscle gain while cutting 0.7% of their body weight a week while taking in ~1.6g/kg of protein a day.