Marine biologist here (well, sort of. I also study terrestrial species but mostly work on whales and sea turtles these days). The "legs" are actually a unusual feature of belugas called ventrolateral abdominal fat pads, two long ridges of firm blubber that can be tensed and raised slightly by the abdominal muscles so that they stick out a little from the rest of the body. Belugas tense and raise them during rolls and when swimming upsidedown. Belugas have no dorsal fins and so it seems they are using these fat ridges as temporary stabilizer fins, deploying them only when needed. (It's thought that they may have lost the dorsal fins so that they could surface to breathe in tiny holes in pack ice without a dorsal fin getting in the way - this may also be the reason that they have an unusually flexible neck.) Their cousins the narwhals, another pack-ice whale with no dorsal fin, also have these fat pads, though the ridges are not as large and obvious as in belugas.
Here is the research article describing the fat pads and proposing their function as stabilizer fins.
edit: So the link has parentheses in it and I can't remember how to tell reddit to ignore the parentheses. Google "belugas fat pads ResearchGate" to find the free full-text version.
edit 2: TIL about putting \ before a parenthesis. Thanks guys
I do research on sexual assault jurisprudence in the US and the other day I was doing a cross-comparison to sexual assault cases under India's laws.
Although it is not technically legal to do the "finger test" anymore in India for examining sexual assault victim statements, doctors still do it because it's still deemed a "legitimate" indication of a woman's habituation to sexual intercourse (and therefore a testament to the credibility of the victim's claims) under Indian medical authority. They use the finger test to examine the elasticity of the vagina because they believe that tight (only able to put 1 finger in) = virgin (bonus points if woman feels pain) and that loose (able to be 2-3 or more fingers in) = promiscuity (but not necessarily rape!).
To highlight the absurdity of the finger test, here is an excerpt from the article I was reading:
>"The routine nature of the test is apparent in Raju @ Rajendra Prasad vs. State of Uttarakhand. In this case, the [rape] victim was 32 weeks pregnant at the time of medical examination. Nevertheless,
the doctor conducted the finger test and noted that the vagina
could only admit one finger easily and that the girl was not
habituated to intercourse, despite her pregnancy."
Women are more attracted to men with partners, especially when those partners are attractive women. So they think men are the same, but men are actually the opposite.
Please read the studies below before you down-vote me. :)
Who’s chasing whom? The impact of gender and relationship status
on mate poaching.
The best men are (not always) already taken: female preference for single versus attached males depends on conception risk.
Do women really like taken men? Results from a large questionnaire study.
I'm a researcher, so it's one of those things I take for granted! I did a quick Google and this might interest you. This is the original article for the hemotek and this is what it looks like. Under each cylinder is a membrane filled with blood.
Yeah, but it's not really 'society' that considers this. The difference in age preferences between men and women is almost certainly largely genetic. Men prefer younger women in societies around the world, and women prefer older men in societies around the world. There's lots of research on this.
Crazy that the ancient ocean hypothesis was (basically) confirmed by evidence of something so dramatic. The lead author is so restrained in this interview:
"Then, of course, there is the fact that the discovery of tsunami deposits represents definite evidence for the existence of the early Mars ocean."
Oh, by the way, we figured that whole giant mystery out. I'd have had a harder time containing myself.
This isn't something that either person in the relationship has control over, but the death of a child greatly increases chances of divorce.
Edit: "The analysis reported here, the largest study of bereavement and marital dissolution to date, shows a pattern of higher divorce rates among bereaved parents. This conclusion holds across family sizes, with the strongest effects observed at lower parities."
Hi! Cats are actually a huge issue for conservation biologists and ecology (especially urban) in general. I'm not talking a tiny problem either where it's fine if only a few people do it. Here's a great overview by the mammal society about the effects of domestic predation by felines. And here's a lovely population modeling survey of the non direct predation effects of felines on avian urban populations! Urban areas, by the way, harbor about 20% of all avian species!
And the issue isn't even that mass cats cause huge conservation problems. The often cited example for this is Tibbles the lighthouse cat. Tibbles was brought to Stephans Island, a small island off the coast of New Zealand, by his owner, the lighthouse keeper, in 1894. Tibbles proceeded to single handily drive the Stephans Island Wren to extinction about a year after his arrival. The problem is that cats are not often subsistence predators, and house cats or pets are even less so. The problem is so large that a famous conservationist, John Wamsley, wears the pelt of a feral cat to ceremonies he's invited to as a way to send a message.
I'm not saying that your cat doesn't need to go outside. Or that he's not happy outside or that it's not fair to keep him cooped up. But it's always important to consider what effects unleashing a predator on an unsuspecting ecological system may have.
And here's the open access copy.
Our brains are able to use face alone to determine the sex of another person. There are also more obvious cues like body shape, tone of voice so on.
Here is a link on a study about facial gender recognition
I'm gonna need sources. Not news articles mind you, but academic papers.
These sources don't support your claim.
This is not my area of research at all, but I have been interested in this same type of question for some time. The following is a theoretical model for the mechanism: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/8004036_fig2_Figure-9-Theoretical-model-of-the-expected-mechanisms-of-massage-on-the-severity-of
This comes from the paper called "The mechanisms of massage and effects on performance, muscle recovery, and injury prevention. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15730338.
I would also advise looking in to muscle spindles. The lengthening of muscle spindles, cause neuronal responses which allow for the relaxation of the spindle, and subsequently the muscles put under tension by that shortened muscle spindle. This is essentially why stretching also feels good. Again, not my area of research, but my physical therapist pointed me in this direction. Wikipedia has some excellent information and so does nih. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscle_spindle
Here's the original study
It's a rather robust finding in psychology that on average, men are better than women at mental rotation and other visuospatial tasks. It's not entirely unreasonable that this could lead to differences in average parking skills. Here's a paper that looked at parking skill in particular and found men were more accurate and faster. But, small sample, only about 30 participants of each sex, and I don't know if they've adjusted for experience beyond a splitting into beginner and experienced drivers (men drive much more).
In addition certain cultures traditionally had a much less varied diet than what OP refers to. See inuit diet, which is rich in vitamin C just from eating the right types of meat and some berries:
I'm going to disagree about having preferences in partner appearance (which I'm assuming is code for racial characteristics) not being racist.
People are attracted to the familiar and the societal norm (in the US, typically white actors or celebrities). Here's an interesting article by a matchmaker on racial attraction trends she's seen among her clients: http://www.theestablishment.co/2015/10/30/online-dating-racism-matchmaking/
A 2015 study of MSM in Australia found that people with strong preferences for or against dating certain races are, in fact, usually racist. Not always. But frequently enough to be a cause for concern even among other populations. Here's the study if you care to read it: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Martin_Holt3/publication/279863184_Is_Sexual_Racism_Really_Racism_Distinguishing_Attitudes_Toward_Sexual_Racism_and_Generic_Racism_Among_Gay_and_Bisexual_Men/links/567f8a2508ae051f9ae67883.pdf?inViewer=0&pd...
(Sorry about the links--on mobile)
Except that this could create an imbalance between Hg and Se, which have a mutal detoxification effect. Unless they have a method to remove Se as well, I wouldn't think they should go forward with this.
These dumb fucks didn't look at the research. NJ is #3.
This particular report does not go in-depth about civil conflict, although it does touch on the mental health consequences of forced migration and civil conflict. Here is a paper that does look at climate change and conflict: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jon_Barnett/publication/222550602_Climate_change_human_security_and_violent_conflict/links/00b7d529ed08e7edbd000000.pdf
I thought to myself, there is no way that is a camel fetus. Fetuses never look like the grown animal.
It does though. So now I'm not sure.
Bears are from the ursidae family while racoons are in the procyonidae family, with ursidae being closer to canidae.
However, all of them are in the order carnivora so in that sense they are closely related!
People used to think the racoon and bear families were very close, but newer genetic research suggests this isn't true.
Check out this phylogeny to get a clearer perspective.
Here's a study from two years ago which shows that 55% of men seeking help for violent partners had received false accusations about physical or sexual abuse from their abusers. It's basically a go-to tactic for abusive women.
The model of vacancy chains was formulated by the sociologist Harrison White (who also had a PhD in physics and did a lot of work on mathematical and computational sociology). It was part of his 1970 book Chains of Opportunity where he mainly looked at how job openings within (and I think across) organizations got filled, through promotion or quitting for example. Person A quits. Person B would move into Job A, Person C would be Promoted into Job B, and a new person would be hired for Job C. You can apply the same models to housing, or romantic relationships in a small group, or, as we see here, hermit crab shells.
Ivan Chase, a very cool but very weird sociologist-turned-zoologist, ended up trying to transfer a lot of sociological theory to zoology. I think his three big successes were using sociological models of hierarchy/dominance in chicken pecking orders and among fish; coordination of tasks among ants; and, of course using, vacancy chains to look at hermit crab shells.
For the academically minded, a good introduction to research on vacancy chains is still probably Chase, Ivan D. (1991). "Vacancy Chains". Annual Review of Sociology. 17: 133–154.
Ivan Chase, the sociologist who worked with animals rather than people, has had an interesting career, though probably his work with animals kept him at associate professor rather than full professor. It's rare that models go from the social sciences to the natural sciences, but that's exactly what Chase did: he introduced a lot of sociological models to various fields of biology. You can see his most popular papers here on Google Scholar.
Edit: for people wanting to read more, I think Chase wrote a non-technical, popular article about this research in Scientific American: here's the PDF.
Yeah I saw that video of the body left in the tub with the water running. Skin shouldn't just float like that.
Edit: one link for electrocution in bathtub, pics of hands/feet/genitalia (male). Obviously, NSFW/NSFL.
Still looking for the link to the other one. I think it was the same situation, suicide in bathtub with warm or hot water running. Skin was floating in the water, had peeled off of the body. Lovely stuff. (Blech)
/u/Cannytomtom provided a source! /r/nsfd. Direct imgur link: http://m.imgur.com/PyuvU?r
Again, nsfl, nsfw, and apparently nsfd.
Now imagine trying to clean that out of upholstery.
TWICE's Mina's father does some seriously impressive research.
Jessica played in her high school soccer team.
SNSD's Yoona's mother seems to be absent in her life. She's never actually talked about it, but in a TV show clip about her family, her mother isn't present, and she's never mentioned having a mother, only a father and a sister. (For example, in speeches, she thanks her sister and her dad but doesn't mention a mom, and when she was asked who she had on speed dial on Yoo Heeyeol's Sketchbook, she said #1 is her dad, #2 is her sister, and then there's no one else.) Knowing that, this fancam is hearbreaking.
No, we don't have a pattern of insect size increasing as oxygen levels increase.
The giant "dragonflies" look like dragonflies, but they are members of the order Meganisoptera, which is different from modern dragonflies.
Meganisopterans lived in the Carboniferous and Permian. They show up around the time that oxygen levels peak and are still present in the fossil record as the rock record indicates oxygen levels are dropping. There are large specimens dated to the Late Permian, which some sources of data indicate had the lowest atmospheric oxygen levels of the last 500 million years.
So right now the evidence indicates that they were supported just fine in atmospheres similar to or lower in oxygen than ours.
Also, where meganisopterans occur alongside members of the same order as modern dragonflies, the dragonflies are not gigantic. Meganisopterans go extinct at the end of the Permian in a huge mass extinction, after which dragonflies increase in size (but don't become gigantic) even though oxygen levels are low. And dragonflies don't get huge when oxygen levels increase again in the Jurassic. To be able to say there's a pattern you'd have to track insect size changing as atmospheric oxygen levels changed, and that's not the case.
Here is a figure showing the January and September events plotted on top of one another. You can really see the similarity in the waveforms this way.
Random lesbian here, the whole sapphic community is full of fat-acceptance and accompanying logic, and a much higher than average obesity rate.
Also, I dunno what OP was doing that she couldn't find the article in an hour, bc I just found it in under 5 minutes. There should be a free download of it as a PDF here. Might dig through it later and poke at their research methods. ~~Haven't found a source for the stat on gay men, but it holds true from my experience~~
EDIT: found two articles discussing body image in gay men relative to their straight counterparts. 2008 here and a 2004 meta-analysis here. I'm...a little worried about OP's research skills, guys. Been out of college for going on 3 years and this was almost painfully easy.
Standing rock says police were using stinger grenades, that split unlike steel vented flashbangs. Fragmentation shown on page 20. They use 8 grams of high explosive, which has the energy of several rifle bullets. You can see from the shape it would put out a flat shock wave near the core to propel the balls outward. If it's within a few inches, it would cut flesh away from bone, flesh is softer than the hard rubber shell. So if the fragments they recovered are rubber, that's what it would point to.
The popular understanding has shifted from "right creative, left analytical" to "no hemispheric difference whatsoever" but neither one of these is fully accurate. We're like a pendulum swinging side to side, continually passing over the middle.
There is a difference between the two hemispheres. But it is not as pronounced as we once thought it was. The left hemisphere specializes in precision, in the syntax of language, its neurons have smaller receptive fields that help you hone in on the best words and the most likely interpretation of those words. The right hemisphere specializes in diffuse thought, the overall understanding of the meaning of a sentence, its neurons have larger receptive fields that help you consider less likely outcomes. Both hemispheres work in concert in your thoughts and speech.
The strongest evidence in favor of hemispheric difference is this: in "eureka" moments of insight problem solving, brain activity shows a tide of alpha waves in the visual cortex followed by a crashing tsunami in the RIGHT insular cortex. Here is a review of insight problem solving, it is a 39-page article that says the word "right" 300 times and "left" only 61 times.
Here is an over lay of the two tests this year. It's a huge indicator that this is nuclear based.
The depth and location are also two of the biggest initial indicators. I imagine later the movement of local military units and such (as viewed by drone/satellite) will also give us insight. As well as diplomatic channels from the country itself.
That's really interesting about the D and L glucose structures. If I'm reading this abstract correctly, the L glucose can be synthesized cheaply using a specific technique.
I'm a geologist/paleontologist not an historian, but I think I have something relevant to share.
Where I live the local native people, the Mi'kmaq, have a legend of their god, Glooscap, getting angry at a beaver for making a giant dam. Glooscap smashed the dam, and the Bay of Fundy flooded in.
Spicer, Stanley T. (1991) Glooscap Legends. Hantsport, Nova Scotia: Lancelot Press.
This is just one of the many legends around here, but quite interestingly recent geophysical data, spurred by ongoing interest to harness the bay's tidal energy, has unearthed (hehe) several distinct glacial formations in the bay (long flooded over), including a rather large terminal moraine. That's a big pile of gravel and clay pushed by a glacier, and they can dam things up quite well.
It would have been present long after the Laurentide glacier retreated and the Mi'kmaq likely would have noticed it (they have some deliciously detailed stories that tie into geological phenomena!). It may have broken as sea level rose, and, if so, that would have been a spectacular flooding event.
One of the reasons being is that they're remarkably resistant to cancer! Magnificent creatures indeed.
As a whale scientist, I'd suggest peeps take the widely quoted figure of 211 years old with a fistful of salt though. That particular estimated age was an outlier within the data produced from this analysis, and the individual whale's estimated age was not corroborated with other lines of evidence (using their eye globes etc.) as with other individuals from the same study.
Other evidence, including indirect estimates from old harpoons still lodged in bowheads, place maximum lifespan somewhere around the 140-160 mark.
Still pretty cool though!
Yeah, the wall of references reeks of "Google dump". Which sucks because (a) it seems almost certain that /u/Pejorativez hasn't read them all; and (b) even if he/she has, the goal of an "actually, that's not true" post should be to bring out a few important and convincing references and explain their relevance, not to bury the reader under an avalanche of resources that nobody is going to read.
Edit: Yeah, first random link I clicked on has no discernible connection to nutrition timing.
It's not really delayed, it just happens irregularly. Here's a graph showing the past reversals. Black is like today, white is flipped. Notice the flips take place at irregular intervals.
>Keith T, 2004, effectiveness of homework in school and out of school
Here's the direct link for those of us who like to fact check: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232521228_Longitudinal_Effects_of_In-School_and_Out-of-School_Homework_on_High_School_Grades
I love that the dude arguing that " Research has shown that homework at home isn't effective." provides this link to back himself up, and his own source contradicts what he says.
[From page 205] "the present findings strongly support out-of-school homework as the more effec-
tive activity for learning. Out-of-school homework had strong effects on stu-
dents’ GPAs, and smaller (but still important) effects on achievement test scores.
Thus, high school students will likely experience greater learning benefits from
completing homework at home"
Guess he needed more reading comprehension homework.
How is Common Core to blame? Here's the 1st grade Common Core guideline for how to teach equality, for instance: "Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2." (source, p. 15)
Nowhere in the standards does Common Core even insinuate that the equals sign means "all together." Some of the people who wrote the standards are in fact experts on this fallacy. (source, p. 20)
They are directly targeting civilians and are completely focused on hospitals,” Ajjaj said. “In the beginning we thought it was simply indiscriminate, but there is repeated targeting of hospitals.”
“There is great danger in giving the GPS locations because the targeting of the hospitals is definite and clear and systematic,” he added.
You blow up one hospital it might be an accident. You blow up 100 hospitals and it starts looking suspicious. After <strong>360</strong> I think its safe to assume you're doing it on purpose
Like other people have pointed out, things like stroke and ADD cause different symptoms in women.
But even more basically, the research done in animal models is almost always conducted on males. My experience is with mice, where it is routinely said that the hormones of female mice will skew a study and results. Well... no. They'll show the results of a female system.
As a result, everything from medical issues and diseases to how medications and even things like alcohol effect women are less understood and therefore problems are much more likely to go unnoticed.
Sexism in mouse research ; Where are the female mice in drug testing?
Here's something. It says the energy requirements are only 7-45% less depending on the type of meat, but land use, emissions, and water use are all 90+% lower.
Post-mortem study finds that women and men have similar levels of suicidal intent
Women who use guns to attempt suicide are 47% less likely to shoot themselves in the head than men, attributed to fear of facial disfigurement
"In choosing less
violent methods, women may be seeking to
protect others, while women also choose methods
that are seen as having less of an effect on
MechE w/ structural analysis background here. I've done my fair share of research on this topic and can shed some light on how tricky/cool/daunting the mfg. process is for some COPV's.
What you really want out of your COPV mfg process is to yield the metallic liner into the overwrap (imagine i put on a corset and then get really fat). This is typically done through what's called an autofrettage process - good link here. Once the linear and the overwrap have made sound contact, your load transfer to the strong overwrap should be quite efficient.
Problem is, there are all sorts of issues that can come up when you're trying to get good liner contact. These can range from non-uniform yielding/displacement throughout the liner to unexpected "sticking" points near the hemispherical end caps. The latter example can lead to a very insidious failure: liner buckling; here's a nice paper on the topic.
Even laying down your overwrap is not necessarily straightforward when you're dealing w/ a new COPV design. Small errors in your filament winder settings can lead to drastically different mechanical properties than expected; and getting your machine settings down to pat is also usually an iterative process which requires quite experienced technician oversight.
Well, as he was carrying a dive computer, we actually know what happened.
He was a Czech citizen (and they have a long history of dying in Croatia :D). Also, he was a cook, not a diver. Here you can see the profile of the cave and the history of his dive computer: Link
He went in and went straight down to the bottom (that's the only way he could travel 50 meters (as you can see his descend on the right pic), and that's exactly how deep the bottom is). Then he immediately went back up - but never to the exit. He probably got lost when entering shallower gallery (which has an entrance similar to cave's exit - it's called false exit on the pic and people who know cave well say that it looks like real exit), instead of going out. The fine silt that got disturbed as he went aroung reduced visibility almost to zero, which got him confused and finally trapped. You can see on the pic that he never again went below 35 meters which is exactly the depth of the shallower cave. He just went in circles there
He stabbed himself before completely running out of oxygen and died in two minutes. Also one of the police officers who went to collect his body drowned, presumably got lost and confused with false exit too. Two more people recently died there.
They state it's the first known and documented case - they searched MEDLINE files and got no hits on "suicide diving".
EDIT: Here's a whole case report, you can read all the details about how they excluded the homicide: http://neuron.mefst.hr/docs/CMJ/issues/2003/44/3/12808733.pdf
EDIT2: downvoters, please do explain!
For selenium, brazil nuts are a great source. 2 per day is all you need.
Just don't eat too many. Selenium poisoning is no good.
1 liter of green/black tea per day alone could provide almost the entire upper tolerable intake of fluoride (10 mg for adults), depending on which brand you buy, leading to an increased chance of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis when combined with other routes of fluoride exposure.
This study found that fluoride free water, when infused with certain types of tea, can be as high as 8.8 mg/L, meaning that if you start with water fluoridated to 4 mg/L, legal in the US, this could rise to 12.8 mg/L. Realistically, most water is about 1 mg/L, but this shows that specific people could become vulnerable to skeletal fluorosis.
This is further complicated by the presence of fluoride in food. Few people know that fluoride is used as a pesticide in the US. Two examples are cryolite, used on grapes and other crops, and sulfuryl fluoride, which leaves a sodium fluoride residue on food. This obvious problem was realized by the EPA back in 2011, and they proposed a phase-out of sulfuryl fluoride for this reason, but never followed through.
This is why many people believe that allowable levels of fluoride should be assessed based on total possible intake.
From an energy perspective, I find it difficult to comprehend how we are going to come up with something more efficient than the self-replicating, self-sustaining meat producing units that are livestock.
EDIT: Did some quick research into the subject, and found this for those who are interested:
Tuomisto, H. L., & Teixeira de Mattos, M. J. (2011). Environmental impacts of cultured meat production. Environmental science & technology, 45(14), 6117-6123.
In short yes there is evidence of this. It is a long held observation that those whose parents divorced were more likely to get divorced themselves (source). However there is an ongoing debate about the extent to which this trend is weakening (source). The basic idea is that the nature of divorce is changing within society and therefore the way it is 'transmitted' between generations is becoming softened.
There is a lot of research on the intergenerational effects of divorce. The effects of children later in life are quite complex and changing as the nature of divorce itself changes.
Not that I know about. The Inuit, for example, have to eat some pretty interesting things in order to get enough vitamin C to survive. I always cringe a bit when I see those pop culture blog diets that suggest their plan is great because of something they read about Inuit diets. Traditionally, to get enough vitamin C Inuit had to eat raw sea mammal organs like seal livers. Raw has much higher levels of vitamin C than cooked.
Personally, I'd much rather eat an orange.
Interestingly, Hujoel, Cunha-Cruz, Banting, & Loesche (2006) tested this using a sample of 800 children performed over 2 years. Results showed that while self-performed flossing resulted in no reduction in the risk for cavities (dental caries), professional flossing performed 5 times a week reduced cavity risk by 40%. These results suggest poor flossing technique is likely to blame, rather than the ineffectiveness of flossing itself. For a video on proper flossing technique, click here.
Additionally, as others have stated the primary benefits of flossing are for gum health, rather than plaque prevention. For instance, Sambunjak et al. (2011) reported that flossing results in moderate to large reductions in the risk of periodontal gum disease (d = 0.72 at 6 months).
Instead, they're going to be pushing their "abstinence" agenda...which doesn't work. Just ask Bristol Palin!
You shouldn't skip cardio. It has loads of health benefits, some of which are to a degree achievable by strength training, but there are definitely strength benefits that result overwhelmingly from improved aerobic conditioning (increased mitochondria count in particular comes to mind, but that tends to require some very long aerobic cardio sessions that tend to be rather out-of-reach for beginners). Plus naturally there are the added benefits of cardio burning excess calories, and regular cardiovascular activity eventually can act as an appetite suppresant once you get good at it, so you don't have to worry about accidentally eating back a bunch of calories you didn't need to take in.
I would advise against any sort of interval work on off-days, simply because it's important to keep the hard days hard and the easy days easy, so if you're doing hard cardio workouts on your days off from lifting, your body doesn't get a break. Ideally you'd just be doing some easy cardio on your days off from lifting, and maybe throwing in an easy cardio workout on lifting days or including one (JUST ONE!) harder cardio session on one weekly lifting day. Those easy days get the blood flowing to your muscles to aid in active recovery after tough workouts.
Not even their bodies are designed for their bodies. Once you reach the at-risk-of-breaking-furniture level, your skeleton is totally out of whack, the force on your joints is out of control, and your stabilizing muscles are out of their league. So yeah, a certain level of clumsiness can result and yeah, it is "tied back into fatness."
That's super awesome that you figured out the cause of your breakouts. Just a quick note: 91% alcohol is actually too high of a concentration to fully sterilize your brushes and makeup :( it actually evaporates too fast to kill all the bacteria! 70% is definitely better if sterilization is what you're going for :) here's a research gate article explaining it!
Short answer: yes, certain trees produce prolific amounts of sap and as a result are thought to be mainly responsible for production of amber.
It's possible to chemically extract distinctive molecules (biomarkers) out of amber and match them up to different types of trees. It has been done for many amber sites, and the exact tree or trees responsible varies considerably.
For the Cretaceous amber from Burma, according to this paper by Dutta et al. 2011 [PDF] it's derived from Pinaceae -- i.e. trees in the same family as pine -- though they also say that Cupressaceae (another type of conifer) can't be ruled out. They also mention that other papers were suggesting araucarians (monkey-puzzle trees, also conifers), but dispute that interpretation.
The "unable to be broken down by then-current bacteria" story you are referring to is probably fungi rather than bacteria, and applies to much earlier times (Carboniferous), though I do not think it is well supported by more recent evidence.
I'm not a doctor but I want to link a story I read about.
Woman didn't know that she was using her urethra for sex and still had an intact hymen after decades of marriage and sex.
NSFW has a picture
Earlier in this thread, someone raised the question of why psychology would even bother confirming "common sense". The parent comment is a shining example.
There has been conflicting evidence about whether or not narcissists actually have low self esteem or whether the self esteem and narcissism constructs are even related. One qualification is that I am not referring to narcissism as personality disorder but as continuous personality trait, so I am talking about the same thing the parent comment is.
Edit: and here's a link for all the narcissism cirlejerkers who won't believe me (not implying that the parent comment is one, too)
Hey, I might be batting way off-target, but this might be a rewarding read?
The Search for Sexual Intimacy for Men with
Cerebral Palsy, Russell P. Shuttleworth, Ph.D.
While it focuses on the issue from a masculine perspective, it may have useful parallels.
According to this study, Sex differences in effective fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing, women are supposedly more sensitive to negative emotions. Full paper is on researchgate.net.
There is no broad reaching scientific study or meta-analysis that confirms this idea, at least from a cursory search. It's a patchwork of research. It is a widely held notion in society that women are more sensitive and emotional, and such studies are potentially subject to research bias, in which the researcher may engage in confirmation bias in selecting their results. In addition, it is a plausible, although debatable, theory that women are just conditioned to be more sensitive through the far-reaching effects of societal norms.
Attempt to fix your broken link
Oh hey, it worked! It broke because the link contained parentheses. You can use a backslash to escape them like so:
It's support material. Objet printers (and this looks like a Connex model) encase the entire part in a convex shell of support material, including a very thin shell on the top.
Source: have cleaned absurd numbers of objet prints.
Edit: here's an example. It looks like the base material is Vero Gray or Vero Blue. The off-white shell is support material.
Yup! Though every pinworm species specialises on infecting a particular host, rarely jumping the species gap - the only evidence we have, for example, of the human pinworm infecting another animal is from finding egg cases in Bonnet macaque guts; the monkeys live, of course, very close to humans in Southern India, living off our waste etc.
Frog parasites are no threat to us. Could rub yo' face in it and be fine.
^(Famous last words... ?)
The popular press frequently suggests people with African ancestry are genetically better at running. The scientific consensus seems to be nah, they aren't.
It's easy to think whoever's best at something right now is fixed and eternal. A few decades back it would've looked like Finns were inherently better runners than everyone else.
with domestic violence its a 70/30 split.
70 percent of the time the male is the victim. He just doesnt get any coverage or support.
a quick search dredged up this little gem of higher education.
a quick taste of the relevant SJW insanity within:
>In several different classrooms, students of color vocalized experiences and arguments that seemed developed in response to what our White students were saying, even though these particular students had not yet been brought into conversation. Indeed, before the breach and the actual dialogue, these
student voices were communal and dialectic.
Looking at global moth distribution seems to give a pattern similar to this
Cold climates such as Siberia or Greenland seem to have the lowest numbers of moths.
Scholey, Andrew, et al. "Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress." Physiology & behavior 97.3 (2009): 304-312. pdf
Smith, Andrew. "Effects of chewing gum on cognitive function, mood and physiology in stressed and non-stressed volunteers." Nutritional neuroscience 13.1 (2010): 7-16. pdf
Yeah, men are always terrorists
>Their motives are viewed as personal, and thus their personal lives are intensely investigated after an attack. The goal of that investigation isn’t to understand the woman – at least in the sense that we wish to understand her male counterpart. The goal is, instead, to find reasons to explain away that woman’s violence. This effort is undertaken to make her less of an existential and normative threat. It allows security personnel to ignore the wider security implications of militant women and it allows the targeted society to dismiss the woman as aberrant and not a “real” threat. Unfortunately, the factors that allow women to be successful terrorists are usually not addressed.
This is absolutely true. According to a PHR researcher, one of the (local, not MSF) doctors working in Aleppo was training in pediatric surgery in Germany and went back because he was more needed there.
Right, I will never defend gold in skincare, since I find it totally gimmicky.
But, if I'm not mistaken (and I might be) they're referring to gold nanoparticles, which, I assume (?) can penetrate the skin, since in the experiment they did they injected those on human cells (because, if gold nanoparticles don't penetrate the skin at all, then, what are we talking about?). Gold flakes instead should be harmeless, right? How are those chunky glitters going to penetrate the skin?
EDIT: I found this article that demonstrates that gold nanoparticles DO penetrate the human skin.
And interestingly, this article, instead, states that gold particles penetration can actually be antiaging (by preventing the formation of AGEs, the products of a chain of reactions that lead to visible signs of aging.)
Which leads to another experiment that talks about this possible anti aging properties.
Now, who else feels confused? 😓
You seem to be mixing two different things here: strength of gender role expectations, and strength of expectations for suppressing emotions. If both genders have the same expectations for suppressing emotions (which I don't think they do, but if they did), that wouldn't be a gender role, it would just be a societal expectation on everyone.
Here are some sources on strength of gender role expectations:
The abstract of this study notes that past research has shown men being punished more harshly.
> Because past research has shown that men who transgress gender role norms are punished more harshly than women [...]
Also, this study found that men making mistakes in masculine jobs were viewed more negatively than women making mistakes in feminine jobs.
> When female leaders made mistakes in the nursing condition, they were viewed similarly to male leaders. However, in the construction scenario, male leaders who committed errors were seen as signiﬁcantly less task-competent than similar female leaders.
Now to the topic of expectations for suppressing emotions:
> My tendency to cry easily was one reason I had no friends and was bullied in elementary school, and I'm a girl.
I can't comment on your elementary school experience, but let's look at the present. Do you genuinely think that women who cry are perceived as negatively for it as men who cry?
This article talks about how anonymous spaces like Reddit can help people with mental health issues who might not otherwise seek support because of stigma. Do you think that they can also contribute to decreased stigma over time, as people with less exposure to mental health problems come across threads like this?
page linking to the full study, not just the abstract
all of this is based on a 20 person study in 2008 of 10 self reported healthy individuals, and 10 self reported chronically unhealthy individuals.
blood, urine, and sweat concentrations of various elemental metals are measured before and after either exercise or sauna induced perspiration.
when reading the study, keep in mind that sweat elimination is measured in micrograms per liter, (a millionth of a gram per liter of sweat), and averaged out in the low to mid 100's of ug/l.... so you would have to sweat thousands of liters to remove half a gram...at nearly best case. still, it may be a bit more efficient than bloodletting or pissing. please remember that these are accumulative ~~"toxins"~~ elements, so the human body is terrible at disposal of them, otherwise they wouldn't accumulate.
so, from the study:
>According to the findings of this study, sweat analysis
provides an additional method for biomonitoring human
levels of many potentially toxic elements. Biomonitoring
based exclusively on measurements from blood and/or
urine can provide misleading conclusions about the state of
toxicant accrual and can underestimate the total body
burden of xenobiotics. Furthermore, with the abundance of
unsubstantiated information relating to detoxification, evidence from this research demonstrates that there may be a
role for induced perspiration as a preventive and therapeutic measure to assist individuals and groups at health
risk resulting from exposure to and bioaccumulation of
toxic elements. Future studies should explore clinical
health outcomes of induced sweating programs in patients
with toxic element bioaccumulation.
We bombed one hospital. In Afghanistan and did a full investigation.
Assad and Russia have bombed 360 as of February 2016.
>They are directly targeting civilians and are completely focused on hospitals,” Ajjaj said. “In the beginning we thought it was simply indiscriminate, but there is repeated targeting of hospitals.”
>“There is great danger in giving the GPS locations because the targeting of the hospitals is definite and clear and systematic,” he added.
>That's not a judgement we can make purely from this study.
You're correct about that, but I was making that statement based on other research:
Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.
When Professionals Become Mothers, Warmth
Doesn’t Cut the Ice
The dynamics of warmth and competence
judgments, and their outcomes in
It is the deepest mystery there is. I dedicated a big chunk of my life to just DMT exploration, and it gets really, really wild, like way beyond anything words can do service to. I'd just say that it's real, there are really alien intelligences, humans are not alone here, somehow life matters deeply, and we evolve to whatever we put out minds to.
There have been some really good studies of the DMT experience that have come out in the past couple decades or so. Rick Strassman's research that was presented in "DMT: The Spirit Molecule" was really important. Most of his participants came out talking about other dimensions and non-human entities. And there was an even bigger study of ayahausca, by Professor Benny Shanon, which he wrote about in the book "Antipodes of the Mind." Probably the best book on DMT, imo, was "Supernatural" by Graham Hancock. Strongly recommended.
Also, for anyone REALLY interested in the subject, check out this 50 page technical article that takes the experience very seriously and analyzes it from a scientific perspective:
Actually, popularity of the disease influences how much funding it receives, even though it should all be proportionate with the severity of the disease, disease burden and overall economic cost.
I am one lucky person whose disease gets 25 times less funding than it should, even though it's more disabling than congestive
heart failure, depression, multiple sclerosis, end-
stage renal disease,...
So yeah, all the cancer advocacy, using carefully chosen words like cancer survivor, cancer fighter, beat the cancer, it does help. (cancer gets more money for research even though heart diseases are more deadly)
No. There are a number of cases of bodybuilders and others seeking rapid weight loss that have injured their livers with megadoses of green tea extract.
However, normal infusions of green tea are hepatoprotective:
In other words, green tea catechins have a hormetic dose response, beneficial at low doses but harmful at very high ones. At low doses, EGCG and the other catechins induce Nrf2 mediated antioxidant and detoxification responses. At high doses, EGCG undergoes redox cycling and depletes hepatocyte reduced glutathione, much as acetaminophen (Tylenol) does.
Made these because all the explanations of disc golf physics online were 200+pages or something like that. Tried to make it as simple as possible. Cut out some mathematics, so if you are interested, just google "gyroscope physics" etc terms.
Feel free to make new / better versions. These were made with paint/gimp, as you can see.
If you have any questions, ask, google the stuff, or read the thesis I copied some of the graphs from:
You know what? Because fuuuck you, I decided to find it on mobile anyway, while I'm at work. All because you're unwilling to believe the idea that men are abused at the same rate women are.
So there, a link to a combination of 200 studies, which also shows how the data has been suppressed for the past 30 years.
And to everyone that downvoted that twat, fuck you too. I thought trust but verify was our motto? Sure, they asked for verification like a snarky twat, but it's still verification.
Also, despite being in mobile, this didn't take too long to find. But whatever.
Hi. I've previously developed PCR based tests for water-borne diseases such as Clostridium, but I'm now a genomics/transcriptomics bioinformatician.
Can you explain why you're using Whole Genome Sequencing? Isn't it more important do do quantification based approaches for something such as contamination? I'm well versed in the rule that genome presence doesn't equal an active population, especially in a mixed species sample as it was a central theme of my PhD defence!
If you need to do functional omics at all there's RNAseq, but why not qPCR for functional genes (i.e. toxicity)? Or even an amplicon based approach for quantifying species such as is commonly done for testing pathogen dispersal or fresh water quality. Actually, while googling for those links I just came across a book called Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens.
When developing my Clostridium tests for a start-up we would talk about how rRNA sequencing would be species agnostic (don't need to know what you're looking for) but would only be financially viable when scaled up. And it's still only semi-quantitative. Not sure the benefit of WGS.
Really interested, thanks.
Edit: Added some links and explanations.
Heh, way back when I was playing WoW in college one of my professors decided to pick it up. He joined our guild for a while and eventually published a paper about it (here, if you want to check it out). Definitely talk to the prof during office hours, though. He's probably got some good advice for you, and taking initiative will earn you brownie points.
1) please understand that DNA tests are not perfect and are therefore susceptible to mistakes.
2) this is the percentage of European DNA the average individual has in each region (not percentage of White people). For instance, African Americans are 25% European on average.
3) most of the data comes from here (e.g. for the US or Mexico). For some countries there were more studies so the results are the average of the aforementioned study and some other studies. For other countries there wasn't any regional data in that study so I took data from other studies. Finally, for a few countries there wasn't any regional data at all.
Please be nice. Hope you like it :)
Courtesy of /u/quantizedd
Sure, I'm on mobile right now so I won't be able to provide you with specific citations for a while, but the inverse relationship between women's perceived intelligence/competence and warmth/other positive attributes, and the disproportionate way this affects women compared to men, is a pretty well researched phenomenon. It wouldn't be very difficult to find some good sources with a quick search if you're interested.
Citations, as requested:
Close to 150ms for males around 20 ? This is so bullshit lmao.
24yo here sitting around 250ms (equivalent 60yo if we follow your link lol), totally average and is absolutely not relevant in my play.
Believable, scientificaly made test on reaction time vs. age
Left graph is reaction time vs age, right graph is the standard deviation (i.e. dispersion of the results, spread). We see that not only it moves very little but most importantly, as we go to older ages it's much more variable depending on the individual. We can expect veteran cs players to be at the extreme low of their age bracket given their activity.
And ignoring all this, reaction time is a very very very overrated feature for a player. Spacial awareness, precision & game knowledge (among other things) all surpass reaction time by far when it comes to the ingredients that make a great player.
The truth is a little more complicated, but he is actually referencing a real effect.
I recognize that username... have you heard of The Authoritarians by Bob Altemeyer? I think you'd like it. He made the book and two postscripts available for free through the University of Manitoba website. It's a must read for anyone who scrolls through /r/forwardsfromgrandma and wonders what the hell is going on in conservative grandma's head. So basically, it backs up what you're saying, but in book form.
And unrelated to the OP, but possibly of interest to you- Altemeyer mentions at one point in the book (page 63) that homophobia and authoritarianism go together. And with all the people running around claiming that Republicans must secretly be self-loathing gay men? (Because let's blame LGBT people for all our own problems, amiright?) It's worth reading the original study that sparked that stereotype.
Setting aside the small sample size, if you look at what's really in it, 1) they took homophobia to mean literally terrified of gay and bi men. 2) The homophobic group of men was just as attracted to women as the control group of straight men. They were just also attracted to men. But because science journalists at the time believed bisexual men don't real, the stereotype has become homophobes = gay. When in reality, they're (using the current definition of homophobic, not the one in the study) most likely just authoritarian assholes with a small chance of being a bi or gay guy who's so far closeted to himself that he's in Narnia.
So for anyone else reading and wondering, that's why things like blind patriotism, sexism and homophobia often go together. The common thread is authoritarianism, which can often go together with religion, but not always.
~~The thing is breast size and fertility aren't particularly related. However,~~ breast symmetry and fertility are. Women with symmetrical breast are more fertile than those asymmetrical breasts. An evolutionary theory is that, since it's easier to tell symmetry from bigger breasts, men gravitated towards that.
As a side note, evolutionary psychology has found some pretty amazing things. For example, men are more attractive when they're surrounding by other women but women are more attractive when they're not with a man. (This applies to long-term heterosexual relationships)
Edit: As promised, references.
As I was rereading the chapter, I realised I misread a word: breast size is not associated to milk production but it is to fertility. Sorry for the mistake. Here's the link to the original study, if you're interested
Edit 2: the second link has a parenthesis so I have to post it directly: http://www.ehbonline.org/article/S0162-3095(97)00002-0/abstract
> No comrade, you don't understand. We should be able to make as many bad choices as we want, and have the people who made good choices support us!
Yes, because that's the socialist critique of capitalism isn't it?
Well no, it's not. People will make decisions in accordance with their material conditions. Marxian theory assumes a society in which individuals aspire to gain subsistence.
Classes are not defined according to who made "good" decisions and who made "bad" ones. Classes are nor defined according to material wealth. The liberal idea of a "low", "middle", and "rich" class lacks material analysis. Classes are defined by who controls the means of productions.
Those who control capital will always be at odds with labor. This is for the very simple reason that as society progresses it becomes cheaper to replace labor with what is known as constant capital. Constant capital may be thought of as machinery and means of production, so expansions of capital are expansions of such. Labor is the employment of a society.
Furthermore, it is not only cheaper to replace labor with constant capital but it becomes absolutely necessary due to the existence of business cycles.
>Can't afford a kid? WHO CARES! Have one anyway! As a matter of fact, have two kids! Only, make sure you aren't married, or in any form of long term relationship.
Yes, this is who needs to be shamed in society, those damned parents! It's not like we have houses to house their families in or food to feed them.
Yes. You can find more details in:
>Schmelzer, T., & Baillie, R. (2008). Summing a curious, slowly convergent series. The American Mathematical Monthly, 115(6), 525-540. <strong>Link</strong> (no paywall).
Convergence is proved in Theorem 1 and the rest of the paper answers the immediate follow-up:
>Once a series is known to converge, the natural question is, “What is its sum?”
While you're right in that the venom's putative function is to inflict pain/incapacitation between breeding males as a dominance/aggression tool, this review of literature on platypus venom cites three sources for the venom killing dogs used to retrieve platypus during hunting. I think that the source is open access, but in case it is not here is the relevant passage:
> the crural system is generally believed to be both an offensive and defensive weapon rather than a mechanism to immobilise prey. This is because the venom does not appear to have any digestive function, is far less virulent than other animal venoms, and it is produced in significant quantities only during the breeding season (Torres and Kuchel 2000). During this time the spurs appear to be used offensively to assert dominance over other males of the species. They can also be used defensively to avoid potential
predators: there have been recorded deaths of dogs that were used to retrieve stunned O. anatinus during hunting (Grant 1995; Torres and Kuchel 2000; Gerritsen 2002). Unwary humans have also been spurred during the course of their duties as shermen, biologists and zookeepers, but as this is uncommon and there have been no human fatalities from O. anatinus envenomation
O source que partilhaste é uma interpretação pseudocientífica de um artigo científico. Para clarificar, os portugueses não têm um gene único no mundo. Os portugueses têm elevada frequência de dois haplótipos do complexo de genes que codifica a formação de anticorpos. Os haplótipos são uma combinação específica de um grupo de genes que são herdados, o que permite ter uma noção das migrações populacionais ao longo do tempo.
Os autores do artigo sugerem que estes dois haplótipos são únicos em Portugal devido a um efeito fundador - um pequeno grupo geneticamente homogéneo com estes dois haplótipos fixou-se apenas e/ou sobreviveu apenas nesta parte da Península Ibérica. Se o grupo fundador tem um pool genético pouco diversificado então é mais provável que sofra um bottleneck. Mesmo que posteriormente exista fluxo de genes entre as populações (i.e. espanhóis), este haplótipo estabiliza-se nas duas populações. O haplótipo de certeza que está presente na população espanhola, só que em muito menor frequência que aqui.
O artigo está disponível aqui.
As an aside, it's widely regarded as a myth that we are hardwired with learning styles.
I don't mean to be rude, hopefully you found this liberating! You had it in you all along!
I've got two papers that peg income among panhandlers at about $300 a month. Do you have anything that's not local news clickbait about one statistical outlier?
This is just not true and is nothing more than folk wisdom. Several studies, e.g. this one, have found that while intelligence correlates positively with anxiety in people with anxiety disorders, it correlates negatively with intelligence in the general population. Neuroticism, which is the propensity to be affected by negative emotions such as anxiety and low mood, has no correlation with intelligence (in fact the correlation is negative unless you account for test anxiety).
How anxious/unhappy we are and how intelligent we are rely on quite different mechanisms and being of high/low intelligence doesn't really affect your susceptibility to negative emotion. If you're a neurotic/anxious person, then the statement "ignorance is bliss" makes sense to you because your view of the world is coloured by your tendency to view everything negatively, but that doesn't make it objectively true.
This was written by The Guardian's science editor, which I find a little appalling, because he says stuff like this:
> Embryos start to become male or female at about six to eight weeks.
It's a ridiculous thing to say. Those embryos have always been either male or female, because they have always had the same DNA. Saying that they "become" male or female at 6-8 weeks is like saying that a human embryo only becomes human at week 8, because that's when you start to be able to see clear differences between a human embryo and a rabbit or a pig.
Don't know if you're aware but there's research out there showing a significant decline in empathy in [drumroll] the 3rd year of medical school. You're not alone!
Here's the study: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mohammadreza_Hojat/publication/26767120_The_devil_is_in_the_third_year_a_longitudinal_study_of_erosion_of_empathy_in_medical_school/links/02bfe51190bcd2d663000000.pdf
Full study available here: